Document Detail

Cigarette smoking as a risk factor for influenza-associated mortality: evidence from an elderly cohort.
MedLine Citation:
PMID:  22813463     Owner:  NLM     Status:  MEDLINE    
BACKGROUND: The effects of individual lifestyle factors on the mortality risk after influenza infection have not been explored.
OBJECTIVES: In this study, we assessed the modifying effects of cigarette smoking on mortality risks associated with influenza in a cohort of Hong Kong elders with a follow-up period of 1998-2009.
METHODS: We used the Cox proportional hazards model with time-dependent covariates of weekly proportions of specimens positive for influenza (termed as influenza virus activity), to calculate the hazard ratio of mortality associated with a 10% increase in influenza virus activity for never, ex- and current smokers. Other individual lifestyle and socioeconomic factors as well as seasonal confounders were also added into the models.
RESULTS: The overall hazard ratio associated with influenza was 1·028 (95% confidence interval, 1·006, 1·051) for all natural cause mortality and 1·035 (1·003, 1·068) for cardiovascular and respiratory mortality. We found that influenza-associated hazard ratio was greater in current and ex-smokers than in never smokers for mortality of all natural causes, cardiovascular and respiratory diseases.
CONCLUSIONS: The findings suggest that smoking might increase influenza-associated mortality risks among elders.
Chit M Wong; Lin Yang; King P Chan; Wai M Chan; Liang Song; Hak K Lai; Thuan Q Thach; Lai M Ho; Kwok H Chan; Tai H Lam; Joseph S M Peiris
Related Documents :
17473193 - Mdm2 promoter snp309 is associated with risk of occurrence and advanced lymph node meta...
22289873 - Risk of colorectal cancer in patients with ulcerative colitis: a meta-analysis of popul...
20966413 - Age- and gender-specific prevalence of cardiovascular risk factors in 40,102 patients w...
Publication Detail:
Type:  Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't     Date:  2012-07-20
Journal Detail:
Title:  Influenza and other respiratory viruses     Volume:  7     ISSN:  1750-2659     ISO Abbreviation:  Influenza Other Respir Viruses     Publication Date:  2013 Jul 
Date Detail:
Created Date:  2013-06-13     Completed Date:  2013-10-24     Revised Date:  2013-10-30    
Medline Journal Info:
Nlm Unique ID:  101304007     Medline TA:  Influenza Other Respir Viruses     Country:  England    
Other Details:
Languages:  eng     Pagination:  531-9     Citation Subset:  IM    
Copyright Information:
© 2012 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.
School of Public Health, The University of Hong Kong, Hong Kong, China.
Export Citation:
APA/MLA Format     Download EndNote     Download BibTex
MeSH Terms
Aged, 80 and over
Cohort Studies
Hong Kong
Influenza, Human / mortality*
Risk Factors
Smoking / adverse effects*
Survival Analysis

From MEDLINE®/PubMed®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine

Previous Document:  Deep understanding of the interaction between thienorphine and UDP-glucuronosyltransferase (UGT) iso...
Next Document:  Neighborhood disparities in access to healthy foods and their effects on environmental justice.