Document Detail

Cigarette smoking and alveolar bone in young adults: a study using digitized radiographs.
MedLine Citation:
PMID:  18251656     Owner:  NLM     Status:  MEDLINE    
BACKGROUND: Evidence indicates that cigarette smoking is one of the most significant risk factors for periodontal diseases; however, there have been few radiographic prospective studies of alveolar bone in young populations. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the effect of smoking on alveolar bone in young adults. METHODS: Eighty-one dental students (mean age: 20.5 years), considered not to have periodontitis according to clinical criteria, participated in this study. Forty-two subjects were smokers (mean consumption was 14.1 cigarettes/day for > or =2 years), and 39 subjects had never smoked. A parallel-arm prospective design was used. All subjects took part in a dental hygiene program (DHP) that included oral hygiene instructions, mechanical debridement, and polishing. The following clinical variables were measured before and after the DHP: plaque index (PI), gingival crevicular fluid (GCF) flow rate, gingival index (GI), probing depth, and clinical attachment level (CAL). Standardized posterior vertical bitewing radiographs were taken and digitized preexperimentally and on days 180, 365, and 545. The following analyses were performed: bone height measurement (BHM), computer-assisted densitometric image analysis (CADIA), and qualitative analysis of digital subtraction radiography (DSR). Repeated-measures multiple-way analysis of variance (ANOVA) was performed between the groups, and one-way ANOVA was performed within the groups. RESULTS: The mean PI and GI were significantly greater in the smokers (P <0.01). The mean GCF flow rate was significantly lower in the smokers (P <0.01). CAL and the number of sites with recession were significantly greater in the smokers (P <0.001). The BHM indicated a significantly lower mean alveolar bone height in the smokers (P <0.01). The smokers showed significantly lower CADIA values, which indicated a lower bone density on days 0 (P <0.05), 180, 365, and 545 (P <0.01). CADIA values decreased during the study in the smokers, with significant differences on day 545 (P <0.05). The smokers had a significantly higher mean percentage of sites that had decreased density, as assessed by DSR (P <0.001). In the smokers, the mean percentage of sites with decreased density, as assessed by DSR, had increased significantly by days 365 (P <0.05) and 545 (P <0.01). CONCLUSIONS: Smoking produces an adverse effect on clinical periodontal variables and alveolar bone height and density, acting as a potential risk factor for alveolar bone loss, even at an early age with low tobacco consumption. It is very important to inform young smokers about the risk of this habit in relation to periodontal health.
Guillermo M Rosa; Gabriela Q Lucas; Oscar N Lucas
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Publication Detail:
Type:  Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't    
Journal Detail:
Title:  Journal of periodontology     Volume:  79     ISSN:  0022-3492     ISO Abbreviation:  J. Periodontol.     Publication Date:  2008 Feb 
Date Detail:
Created Date:  2008-02-06     Completed Date:  2008-03-18     Revised Date:  -    
Medline Journal Info:
Nlm Unique ID:  8000345     Medline TA:  J Periodontol     Country:  United States    
Other Details:
Languages:  eng     Pagination:  232-44     Citation Subset:  D; IM    
Department of Research, Graduate School Foundation, Resistencia, Chaco, Argentina.
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MeSH Terms
Absorptiometry, Photon
Alveolar Bone Loss / etiology*,  radiography*
Analysis of Variance
Bone Density
Case-Control Studies
Dental Plaque Index
Oral Hygiene / education
Periodontal Index
Prospective Studies
Radiographic Image Interpretation, Computer-Assisted
Radiography, Bitewing
Radiography, Dental, Digital
Risk Factors
Smoking / adverse effects*
Subtraction Technique

From MEDLINE®/PubMed®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine

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