Document Detail

Choline: an essential nutrient for public health.
MedLine Citation:
PMID:  19906248     Owner:  NLM     Status:  MEDLINE    
Choline was officially recognized as an essential nutrient by the Institute of Medicine (IOM) in 1998. There is significant variation in the dietary requirement for choline that can be explained by common genetic polymorphisms. Because of its wide-ranging roles in human metabolism, from cell structure to neurotransmitter synthesis, choline-deficiency is now thought to have an impact on diseases such as liver disease, atherosclerosis, and, possibly, neurological disorders. Choline is found in a wide variety of foods. Eggs and meats are rich sources of choline in the North American diet, providing up to 430 milligrams per 100 grams. Mean choline intakes for older children, men, women, and pregnant women are far below the adequate intake level established by the IOM. Given the importance of choline in a wide range of critical functions in the human body, coupled with less-than-optimal intakes among the population, dietary guidance should be developed to encourage the intake of choline-rich foods.
Steven H Zeisel; Kerry-Ann da Costa
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Publication Detail:
Type:  Journal Article; Review    
Journal Detail:
Title:  Nutrition reviews     Volume:  67     ISSN:  1753-4887     ISO Abbreviation:  Nutr. Rev.     Publication Date:  2009 Nov 
Date Detail:
Created Date:  2009-11-12     Completed Date:  2010-01-25     Revised Date:  2014-09-14    
Medline Journal Info:
Nlm Unique ID:  0376405     Medline TA:  Nutr Rev     Country:  United States    
Other Details:
Languages:  eng     Pagination:  615-23     Citation Subset:  IM    
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MeSH Terms
Breast Neoplasms / etiology,  prevention & control
Child, Preschool
Choline / administration & dosage*,  genetics,  metabolism*
Choline Deficiency / complications,  epidemiology,  genetics
Disease Models, Animal
Health Promotion
Heart Diseases / etiology,  prevention & control
Infant, Newborn
Inflammation / etiology,  prevention & control
Lipotropic Agents / administration & dosage,  metabolism
Memory / drug effects
Middle Aged
Neural Tube Defects / etiology,  prevention & control
Nutrition Policy*
Nutritional Requirements*
Polymorphism, Genetic
Public Health*
Young Adult
Grant Support
P01 AG009525/AG/NIA NIH HHS; P01 AG009525-150005/AG/NIA NIH HHS; P30 DK056350/DK/NIDDK NIH HHS; P30 DK056350-08/DK/NIDDK NIH HHS; R01 DK055865/DK/NIDDK NIH HHS; R01 DK055865-07/DK/NIDDK NIH HHS
Reg. No./Substance:
0/Lipotropic Agents; N91BDP6H0X/Choline

From MEDLINE®/PubMed®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine

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