Document Detail

Cholesterol embolization syndrome.
MedLine Citation:
PMID:  21993354     Owner:  NLM     Status:  In-Data-Review    
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: To describe cholesterol embolization syndrome (CES) and its risk factors, pathophysiology, clinical presentation, diagnosis and treatment.
RECENT FINDINGS: To date, no specific diagnostic test (other than biopsy) for CES has been developed. Effective treatments for CES are yet to be developed.
SUMMARY: CES (also referred to as cholesterol crystal embolization, atheromatous embolization or atheroembolism) occurs when cholesterol crystals and other contents of an atherosclerotic plaque embolize from a large proximal artery to smaller distal arteries, causing ischemic end-organ damage. Clinical manifestations of CES include constitutional symptoms (fever, anorexia, weight loss, fatigue and myalgias), signs of systemic inflammation (anemia, thrombocytopenia leukocytosis, high erythrocyte sedimentation rate, elevated levels of C-reactive protein, hypocomplementemia), hypereosinophilia, eosinophiluria, acute onset of diffuse neurologic deficit, amaurosis fugax, acute renal failure, gut ischemia, livedo reticularis and blue-toe syndrome. CES may occur spontaneously or after an arterial procedure. There is no specific laboratory test for CES. Retinal exam demonstrating Hollenhorst plaques supports the diagnosis of CES. Biopsy of target organs (usually skin, skeletal muscles or kidneys) is the only means of confirming the diagnosis of CES. Treatment consists of supportive care and general management of atherosclerosis and arterial ischemia.
Muhamed Saric; Itzhak Kronzon
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Publication Detail:
Type:  Journal Article    
Journal Detail:
Title:  Current opinion in cardiology     Volume:  26     ISSN:  1531-7080     ISO Abbreviation:  Curr. Opin. Cardiol.     Publication Date:  2011 Nov 
Date Detail:
Created Date:  2011-10-13     Completed Date:  -     Revised Date:  -    
Medline Journal Info:
Nlm Unique ID:  8608087     Medline TA:  Curr Opin Cardiol     Country:  United States    
Other Details:
Languages:  eng     Pagination:  472-9     Citation Subset:  IM    
aLeon H. Charney Division of Cardiology, New York University Langone Medical Center bDepartment of Cardiovascular Medicine, Lenox Hill Hospital, New York, New York, USA *Muhamed Saric and Itzhak Kronzon contributed equally to the writing of this article.
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