Document Detail


Chemical and microbial characterization of household graywater.
MedLine Citation:
PMID:  11413826     Owner:  NLM     Status:  MEDLINE    
Abstract/OtherAbstract:
In arid areas, the search for efficient methods to conserve water is of paramount importance. One of the methods of water conservation available today is graywater recycling--the reuse of water from the sinks, showers, washing machine, and dishwasher in a home. The purpose of this project was to characterize the chemical and microbial quality of graywater from a single-family home with two adults. Water samples from a graywater holding tank were analyzed over a seven-month period for total coliforms, fecal coliforms, fecal streptococci, Staphylococcus aureus (S. aureus), Pseudomonas aeruginosa (P. aeruginosa), and coliphages. The pH, turbidity, biological oxygen demand (BOD), suspended solids (SS), electrical conductivity (EC), sulfates (SO4), and chlorides (Cl) were also measured. The mean numbers of total coliforms, fecal coliforms, fecal streptococci, and P. aeruginosa were 8.03 x 10(7), 5.63 x 10(5), 2.38 x 10(2), and 1.99 x 10(4) CFU/100 mL, respectively. S. aureus and coliphages were not detected. In the chemical analysis, mean values of 7.47 for pH, 43 nephelometric turbidity units (NTU) for turbidity, 64.85 mg/L for BOD, 35.09 mg/L for SS, 0.43 mS/cm for EC, 59.59 mg/L for SO4, and 20.54 mg/L for Cl were measured. These data were compared to data taken in 1986 and 1987, when two adults and one child lived in the household. Analysis showed no statistically significant difference in levels of total coliforms and suspended solids between the two data sets. There were statistically significant differences in levels of fecal coliforms, pH, turbidity, chlorides, sulfates, and BOD between the two households. Fecal coliforms, turbidity, and BOD were higher in the household with two adults and one child. Levels of Cl, SO4, and pH were higher in the household with two adults.
Authors:
L M Casanova; C P Gerba; M Karpiscak
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Publication Detail:
Type:  Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't; Research Support, U.S. Gov't, Non-P.H.S.    
Journal Detail:
Title:  Journal of environmental science and health. Part A, Toxic/hazardous substances & environmental engineering     Volume:  36     ISSN:  1093-4529     ISO Abbreviation:  J Environ Sci Health A Tox Hazard Subst Environ Eng     Publication Date:  2001  
Date Detail:
Created Date:  2001-06-20     Completed Date:  2001-10-25     Revised Date:  2009-08-14    
Medline Journal Info:
Nlm Unique ID:  9812551     Medline TA:  J Environ Sci Health A Tox Hazard Subst Environ Eng     Country:  United States    
Other Details:
Languages:  eng     Pagination:  395-401     Citation Subset:  IM    
Affiliation:
Department of Soil, Water, and Environmental Science, Building #90, Room 409, University of Arizona, Tucson, Arizona 85721, USA.
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MeSH Terms
Descriptor/Qualifier:
Adult
Child
Conservation of Natural Resources*
Enterobacteriaceae / isolation & purification
Female
Housing
Humans
Hydrogen-Ion Concentration
Male
Oxygen / metabolism
Water Microbiology*
Water Pollutants, Chemical / analysis*
Water Supply*
Chemical
Reg. No./Substance:
0/Water Pollutants, Chemical; 7782-44-7/Oxygen

From MEDLINE®/PubMed®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine


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