Document Detail

Characterizing the hierarchical structures of bioactive sol-gel silicate glass and hybrid scaffolds for bone regeneration.
MedLine Citation:
PMID:  22349249     Owner:  NLM     Status:  MEDLINE    
Bone is the second most widely transplanted tissue after blood. Synthetic alternatives are needed that can reduce the need for transplants and regenerate bone by acting as active temporary templates for bone growth. Bioactive glasses are one of the most promising bone replacement/regeneration materials because they bond to existing bone, are degradable and stimulate new bone growth by the action of their dissolution products on cells. Sol-gel-derived bioactive glasses can be foamed to produce interconnected macropores suitable for tissue ingrowth, particularly cell migration and vascularization and cell penetration. The scaffolds fulfil many of the criteria of an ideal synthetic bone graft, but are not suitable for all bone defect sites because they are brittle. One strategy for improving toughness of the scaffolds without losing their other beneficial properties is to synthesize inorganic/organic hybrids. These hybrids have polymers introduced into the sol-gel process so that the organic and inorganic components interact at the molecular level, providing control over mechanical properties and degradation rates. However, a full understanding of how each feature or property of the glass and hybrid scaffolds affects cellular response is needed to optimize the materials and ensure long-term success and clinical products. This review focuses on the techniques that have been developed for characterizing the hierarchical structures of sol-gel glasses and hybrids, from atomic-scale amorphous networks, through the covalent bonding between components in hybrids and nanoporosity, to quantifying open macroporous networks of the scaffolds. Methods for non-destructive in situ monitoring of degradation and bioactivity mechanisms of the materials are also included.
R A Martin; S Yue; J V Hanna; P D Lee; R J Newport; M E Smith; J R Jones
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Publication Detail:
Type:  Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't; Review    
Journal Detail:
Title:  Philosophical transactions. Series A, Mathematical, physical, and engineering sciences     Volume:  370     ISSN:  1364-503X     ISO Abbreviation:  Philos Trans A Math Phys Eng Sci     Publication Date:  2012 Mar 
Date Detail:
Created Date:  2012-02-21     Completed Date:  2012-05-01     Revised Date:  2013-04-24    
Medline Journal Info:
Nlm Unique ID:  101133385     Medline TA:  Philos Trans A Math Phys Eng Sci     Country:  England    
Other Details:
Languages:  eng     Pagination:  1422-43     Citation Subset:  IM    
School of Engineering and Applied Science, Aston Research Centre for Healthy Ageing, Aston University, Birmingham B4 7ET, UK.
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MeSH Terms
Bone Regeneration / physiology*
Bone Substitutes / chemistry*
Drug Carriers / chemistry*
Glass / chemistry*
Phase Transition
Silicates / chemistry*
Tissue Scaffolds*
Reg. No./Substance:
0/Bone Substitutes; 0/Drug Carriers; 0/Silicates

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