Document Detail

Characterization of craniomaxillofacial battle injuries sustained by United States service members in the current conflicts of Iraq and Afghanistan.
MedLine Citation:
PMID:  20006147     Owner:  NLM     Status:  MEDLINE    
PURPOSE: To characterize and describe the craniomaxillofacial (CMF) battlefield injuries sustained by US Service Members in Operation Iraqi Freedom and Operation Enduring Freedom. PATIENTS AND METHODS: The Joint Theater Trauma Registry was queried from October 19, 2001, to December 11, 2007, for CMF battlefield injuries. The CMF injuries were identified using the "International Classification of Diseases, Ninth Revision, Clinical Modification" codes and the data compiled for battlefield injury service members. Nonbattlefield injuries, killed in action, and return to duty cases were excluded. RESULTS: CMF battlefield injuries were found in 2,014 of the 7,770 battlefield-injured US service members. In the 2,014 injured service members were 4,783 CMF injuries (2.4 injuries per soldier). The incidence of CMF battlefield injuries by branch of service was Army, 72%; Marines, 24%; Navy, 2%; and Air Force, 1%. The incidence of penetrating soft-tissue injuries and fractures was 58% and 27%, respectively. Of the fractures, 76% were open. The location of the facial fractures was the mandible in 36%, maxilla/zygoma in 19%, nasal in 14%, and orbit in 11%. The remaining 20% were not otherwise specified. The primary mechanism of injury involved explosive devices (84%). CONCLUSIONS: Of the injured US service members, 26% had injuries to the CMF region in the Operation Iraqi Freedom/Operation Enduring Freedom conflicts during a 6-year period. Multiple penetrating soft-tissue injuries and fractures caused by explosive devices were frequently seen. Increased survivability because of body armor, advanced battlefield medicine, and the increased use of explosive devices is probably related to the elevated incidence of CMF battlefield injuries. The current use of "International Classification of Diseases, Ninth Revision, Clinical Modification" codes with the Joint Theater Trauma Registry failed to characterize the severity of facial wounds.
Timothy A Lew; John A Walker; Joseph C Wenke; Lorne H Blackbourne; Robert G Hale
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Publication Detail:
Type:  Journal Article    
Journal Detail:
Title:  Journal of oral and maxillofacial surgery : official journal of the American Association of Oral and Maxillofacial Surgeons     Volume:  68     ISSN:  1531-5053     ISO Abbreviation:  J. Oral Maxillofac. Surg.     Publication Date:  2010 Jan 
Date Detail:
Created Date:  2009-12-16     Completed Date:  2010-01-12     Revised Date:  -    
Medline Journal Info:
Nlm Unique ID:  8206428     Medline TA:  J Oral Maxillofac Surg     Country:  United States    
Other Details:
Languages:  eng     Pagination:  3-7     Citation Subset:  AIM; D; IM    
Oral and Maxillofacial Surgery, Brooke Army Medical Center, US Army Institute of Surgical Research, Fort Sam Houston, TX 78234, USA.
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MeSH Terms
Afghan Campaign 2001-*
Craniocerebral Trauma / epidemiology*,  pathology
Facial Bones / injuries
Iraq War, 2003 -*
Middle Aged
Military Personnel / statistics & numerical data*
Skull Fractures / epidemiology
Soft Tissue Injuries / epidemiology,  pathology
United States / epidemiology
Young Adult

From MEDLINE®/PubMed®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine

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