Document Detail

Characterization of alkylmethoxypyrazines contributing to earthy/bell pepper flavor in farmstead cheddar cheese.
MedLine Citation:
PMID:  19021793     Owner:  NLM     Status:  MEDLINE    
Farmstead Cheddar cheeses with natural bandage wrappings have a distinctive flavor profile that is appealing to many consumers. An earthy/bell pepper (EBP) flavor has been previously recognized in some of these cheeses. This study characterized the alkylmethoxypyrazine compounds causing EBP flavor in Farmstead Cheddar cheeses. Eight cheeses were divided into inner, outer, rind, and wrapper sections, and tested for descriptive sensory and instrumental analyses. To assess reproducibility of EBP flavor, cheeses from the same facilities were purchased and tested after 6 and 12 mo. EBP flavor was detected in four out of 8 Farmstead Cheddar cheeses by a trained sensory panel. 2-sec-butyl-3-methoxypyrazine and 2-isopropyl-3-methoxypyrazine were identified as the main sources of EBP flavor in these cheeses by GC/O and GC/MS. In general, those alkylmethoxypyrazines were prevalent in the wrapper (106 to 730 ppb) and rind (39 to 444 ppb) sections of the cheeses. They were either not detected in inner and outer sections of the cheeses or were present at low concentrations. These results suggest that 2-sec-butyl-3-methoxypyrazine and 2-isopropyl-3-methoxypyrazine are formed near the surface of the cheeses and migrate into the cheese during ripening. Threshold values in water and whole milk were 1 and 16 ppt for 2-sec-butyl-3-methoxypyrazine, and 0.4 and 2.3 ppt for 2-isopropyl-3-methoxypyrazine, respectively. Sensory analysis of mild Cheddar cheese model systems confirmed that direct addition of those individual alkylmethoxypyrazines (0.4 to 20 ppb) resulted in EBP flavor.
E R D Neta; R E Miracle; T H Sanders; M A Drake
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Publication Detail:
Type:  Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't    
Journal Detail:
Title:  Journal of food science     Volume:  73     ISSN:  1750-3841     ISO Abbreviation:  J. Food Sci.     Publication Date:  2008 Nov 
Date Detail:
Created Date:  2008-11-21     Completed Date:  2009-02-13     Revised Date:  -    
Medline Journal Info:
Nlm Unique ID:  0014052     Medline TA:  J Food Sci     Country:  United States    
Other Details:
Languages:  eng     Pagination:  C632-8     Citation Subset:  IM    
Department of Food, Bioprocessing and Nutrition Sciences, NC State University, Raleigh, NC 27695-7624, USA.
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MeSH Terms
Cheese / analysis*,  microbiology
Consumer Satisfaction
Earth (Planet)
Gas Chromatography-Mass Spectrometry
North Carolina
Penicillium / growth & development
Pyrazines / analysis*
Reproducibility of Results
Sensitivity and Specificity
Reg. No./Substance:

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