Document Detail

Characteristics of latrine promotion participants and non-participants; inspection of latrines; and perceptions of household latrines in Northern Ghana.
MedLine Citation:
PMID:  17550475     Owner:  NLM     Status:  MEDLINE    
OBJECTIVES: To examine characteristics of household heads in two districts of Northern Ghana who had or had not participated in latrine promotion programmes; to inspect latrines; and to explore perceptions of latrine ownership. METHODS: One hundred and twenty latrine owners and 120 non-owners were randomly selected from all trachoma-endemic villages and interviewed. Structured questionnaires assessed demographics, household data, wealth indicators, and perceptions of latrine ownership. Latrines were inspected. RESULTS: Latrine owners and non-owners were similar demographically, but owners were more likely to report any education or wealth indicators: any education OR = 2.0, (95% CI 1.2-3.4); large family size OR = 4.6 (2.6-8.2); children in school OR = 3.8 (1.3-10.5); and metal roof OR = 9.1 (2.0-40.0). All 120 latrine owners were participating in promotion programmes; no latrines had been self-built without programme support. Inspection showed 73/120 (60.1%) latrines were completed and used. Of the uncompleted latrines 41/47 (87.2%) were more than a year old. Programme participants (regardless of whether they had a completed latrine) had contributed cash (mean 16.74 dollars S.D.18.09) and 117/120 had provided labour and/or construction materials. The most frequently reported advantages of latrine ownership were convenience, cleanliness and health benefits; reported disadvantages were the need for maintenance and cleaning and bad odour. CONCLUSIONS: Current latrine promotion programmes do not reach all households equally. Joining a latrine programme was expensive and did not guarantee latrine ownership; this may cause people to lose trust in such programmes. Latrines were perceived to be useful, suggesting unmet demand. Reliable and inclusive programmes that provide low cost latrines may receive community support.
Ann F Rodgers; Lydia A Ajono; John O Gyapong; Maria Hagan; Paul M Emerson
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Publication Detail:
Type:  Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't    
Journal Detail:
Title:  Tropical medicine & international health : TM & IH     Volume:  12     ISSN:  1360-2276     ISO Abbreviation:  Trop. Med. Int. Health     Publication Date:  2007 Jun 
Date Detail:
Created Date:  2007-06-06     Completed Date:  2007-07-09     Revised Date:  -    
Medline Journal Info:
Nlm Unique ID:  9610576     Medline TA:  Trop Med Int Health     Country:  England    
Other Details:
Languages:  eng     Pagination:  772-82     Citation Subset:  IM    
Yale University, School of Epidemiology and Public Health, New Haven, CT, USA.
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MeSH Terms
Attitude to Health*
Educational Status
Endemic Diseases / prevention & control
Equipment Design
Ghana / epidemiology
Health Promotion / methods*
Middle Aged
Population Surveillance / methods
Residence Characteristics
Rural Health
Toilet Facilities*
Trachoma / epidemiology,  prevention & control

From MEDLINE®/PubMed®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine

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