Document Detail

Changes in human ecology and behavior in relation to the emergence of diarrheal diseases, including cholera.
MedLine Citation:
PMID:  8146128     Owner:  NLM     Status:  MEDLINE    
Human populations throughout the world can be found in diverse conditions. A proportion of the population of developing countries lives in deprived conditions characterized by ramshackle housing, lack of piped water and sanitation, and widespread fecal contamination of the environment. Enteric infections, particularly due to bacterial pathogenes, are readily transmitted under these circumstances. In contrast, the majority of inhabitants of industrialized countries live in a sanitary environment that generally discourages the transmission of enteric pathogenes, particularly bacteria. In both these ecologic niches, changes in human ecology and behavior are leading to the emergence of certain enteric infections. Relevant factors in developing areas include urbanization (leading to periurban slums), diminished breastfeeding, and political upheaval that results in population migrations. In industrialized areas, large-scale food production (e.g., enormous poultry farms), distribution, and retailing (e.g., fast-food chains) create opportunities where widespread and extensive outbreaks of food-borne enteric infection can ensue if a breakdown in food hygiene occurs.
M M Levine; O S Levine
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Publication Detail:
Type:  Journal Article; Review    
Journal Detail:
Title:  Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America     Volume:  91     ISSN:  0027-8424     ISO Abbreviation:  Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A.     Publication Date:  1994 Mar 
Date Detail:
Created Date:  1994-05-05     Completed Date:  1994-05-05     Revised Date:  2009-11-18    
Medline Journal Info:
Nlm Unique ID:  7505876     Medline TA:  Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A     Country:  UNITED STATES    
Other Details:
Languages:  eng     Pagination:  2390-4     Citation Subset:  IM    
Department of Medicine, University of Maryland School of Medicine, Baltimore 21201.
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MeSH Terms
Cholera / epidemiology*
Developing Countries
Diarrhea / epidemiology*
Enterobacteriaceae Infections / epidemiology*
Food Services
World Health

From MEDLINE®/PubMed®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine

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