Document Detail

Cerebrospinal fluid monoamine precursors and metabolites in human neonates following in utero cocaine exposure: a preliminary study.
MedLine Citation:
PMID:  8516085     Owner:  NLM     Status:  MEDLINE    
BACKGROUND: Cocaine acts in the central nervous system by increasing dopamine release and inhibiting the reuptake of dopamine and other monoaminergic neurotransmitters. Prenatal cocaine exposure may cause neurochemical changes in developing monoaminergic neurons and might alter brain structure and function. No data have been published on central nervous system monoamine precursors and metabolites in human neonates exposed prenatally to cocaine. METHODS: Cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) was obtained from neonates undergoing lumbar puncture to rule out infection. The CSF was analyzed for the neurotransmitter precursors and metabolites tryptophan, tyrosine, 3-methoxy-4-hydroxyphenylglycol, homovanillic acid, and 5-hydroxyindoleacetic acid. Drug exposure was ascertained by medical record review and urine and meconium assays. RESULTS: Eleven neonates were cocaine-exposed, based on positive meconium or urine assays for benzoylecgonine; 20 were unexposed, based on both negative history and assay. The exposed and unexposed groups did not differ significantly in gender, perinatal stress, clinical illness, or exposure to other illicit drugs, but did differ in mean gestational age, growth parameters, and exposure to cigarettes. Cocaine-exposed neonates had significantly lower levels of CSF homovanillic acid (mean 148.1 vs 218.5 ng/mL, P = .01). The magnitude of this difference was similar after correcting for each of four potential confounding factors, although no longer statistically significant in all cases (P values ranged from .044 to .17). No significant differences were observed for tyrosine, tryptophan, 5-hydroxyindoleacetic acid, or 3-methoxy-4-hydroxyphenylglycol. CONCLUSIONS: These preliminary results suggest an association between prenatal cocaine exposure and decreased CSF homovanillic acid, the principal metabolite of dopamine. Prenatal cocaine exposure may result in changes in central dopaminergic systems in the human neonate.
R Needlman; B Zuckerman; G M Anderson; M Mirochnick; D J Cohen
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Publication Detail:
Type:  Journal Article; Research Support, U.S. Gov't, P.H.S.    
Journal Detail:
Title:  Pediatrics     Volume:  92     ISSN:  0031-4005     ISO Abbreviation:  Pediatrics     Publication Date:  1993 Jul 
Date Detail:
Created Date:  1993-07-21     Completed Date:  1993-07-21     Revised Date:  2010-03-24    
Medline Journal Info:
Nlm Unique ID:  0376422     Medline TA:  Pediatrics     Country:  UNITED STATES    
Other Details:
Languages:  eng     Pagination:  55-60     Citation Subset:  AIM; IM    
Division of Developmental and Behavioral Pediatrics, Boston City Hospital, MA 02118.
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MeSH Terms
Biogenic Monoamines / cerebrospinal fluid,  metabolism*
Brain / drug effects
Case-Control Studies
Cocaine / adverse effects*
Dopamine / metabolism
Dose-Response Relationship, Drug
Fetus / drug effects
Homovanillic Acid / cerebrospinal fluid*
Infant, Newborn
Multivariate Analysis
Norepinephrine / metabolism
Prenatal Exposure Delayed Effects*
Serotonin / metabolism
Grant Support
MCJ 009094//PHS HHS
Reg. No./Substance:
0/Biogenic Monoamines; 306-08-1/Homovanillic Acid; 50-36-2/Cocaine; 50-67-9/Serotonin; 51-41-2/Norepinephrine

From MEDLINE®/PubMed®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine

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