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Cerebral amyloid angiopathy-associated intracerebral hemorrhage: pathology and management.
MedLine Citation:
PMID:  22463117     Owner:  NLM     Status:  In-Data-Review    
Abstract/OtherAbstract:
Amyloid angiopathy-associated intracerebral hemorrhage (ICH) comprises 12%-15% of lobar ICH in the elderly. This growing population has an increasing incidence of thrombolysis-related hemorrhages, causing the management of hemorrhages associated with cerebral amyloid angiopathy (CAA) to take center stage. A concise reference assimilating the pathology and management of this clinical entity does not exist. Amyloid angiopathy-associated hemorrhages are most often solitary, but the natural history often progresses to include multifocal and recurrent hemorrhages. Compared with other causes of ICH, patients with CAA-associated hemorrhages have a lower mortality rate but an increased risk of recurrence. Unlike hypertensive arteriolar hemorrhages that occur in penetrating subcortical vessels, CAA-associated hemorrhages are superficial in location due to preferential involvement of vessels in the cerebral cortex and meninges. This feature makes CAA-associated hemorrhages easier to access surgically. In this paper, the authors discuss 3 postulates regarding the pathogenesis of amyloid hemorrhages, as well as the established clinicopathological classification of amyloid angiopathy and CAA-associated ICH. Common inheritance patterns of familial CAA with hemorrhagic strokes are discussed along with the role of genetic screening in relatives of patients with CAA. The radiological characteristics of CAA are described with specific attention to CAA-associated microhemorrhages. The detection of these microhemorrhages may have important clinical implications on the administration of anticoagulation and antiplatelet therapy in patients with probable CAA. Poor patient outcome in CAA-associated ICH is associated with dementia, increasing age, hematoma volume and location, initial Glasgow Coma Scale score, and intraventricular extension. The surgical management strategies for amyloid hemorrhages are discussed with a review of published surgical case series and their outcomes with a special attention to postoperative hemorrhage.
Authors:
Prachi Mehndiratta; Sunil Manjila; Thomas Ostergard; Sylvia Eisele; Mark L Cohen; Cathy Sila; Warren R Selman
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Publication Detail:
Type:  Journal Article    
Journal Detail:
Title:  Neurosurgical focus     Volume:  32     ISSN:  1092-0684     ISO Abbreviation:  Neurosurg Focus     Publication Date:  2012 Apr 
Date Detail:
Created Date:  2012-04-02     Completed Date:  -     Revised Date:  -    
Medline Journal Info:
Nlm Unique ID:  100896471     Medline TA:  Neurosurg Focus     Country:  United States    
Other Details:
Languages:  eng     Pagination:  E7     Citation Subset:  IM    
Affiliation:
Departments of Neurology.
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