Document Detail

Central nervous mechanisms in the generation of the pattern of breathing.
MedLine Citation:
PMID:  16097497     Owner:  NLM     Status:  MEDLINE    
The role of the Bötzinger complex (BötC) and the pre-Bötzinger complex (pre-BötC) in the genesis of the breathing pattern was investigated in anesthetized, vagotomized, paralysed and artificially ventilated rabbits making use of bilateral microinjections of kainic acid (KA) and excitatory amino acid (EAA) receptor antagonists. KA microinjections into either the BötC or the pre-BötC transiently eliminated respiratory rhythmicity in the presence of tonic phrenic activity (tonic apnea). Rhythmic activity resumed as low-amplitude, high-frequency irregular oscillations, superimposed on tonic inspiratory activity and displayed a progressive, although incomplete recovery. Microinjections of kynurenic acid (KYN) and D(-)-2-amino-5-phosphonopentanoic acid (D-AP5) into the BötC caused a pattern of breathing characterized by low-amplitude, high-frequency irregular oscillations and subsequently tonic apnea. Responses to KYN and D-AP5 in the pre-BötC were similar, although less pronounced than those elicited by these drugs in the BötC and never characterized by tonic apnea. Microinjections of 6-cyano-7-nitroquinoxaline-2,3-dione (CNQX) into the BötC and the pre-BötC induced much less intense responses mainly consisting of increases in respiratory frequency. The results show that the investigated medullary regions play a prominent role in the genesis of the normal pattern of breathing through the endogenous activation of EAA receptors.
T Pantaleo; F Bongianni; D Mutolo
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Publication Detail:
Type:  Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't    
Journal Detail:
Title:  Archives italiennes de biologie     Volume:  143     ISSN:  0003-9829     ISO Abbreviation:  Arch Ital Biol     Publication Date:  2005 Sep 
Date Detail:
Created Date:  2005-08-15     Completed Date:  2005-09-16     Revised Date:  2009-10-05    
Medline Journal Info:
Nlm Unique ID:  0372441     Medline TA:  Arch Ital Biol     Country:  Italy    
Other Details:
Languages:  eng     Pagination:  207-14     Citation Subset:  IM    
Dipartimento di Scienze Fisiologiche, Università di Firenze, Viale G.B. Morgagni 63, I-50134 Firenze, Italy.
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MeSH Terms
Action Potentials / drug effects,  physiology
Biological Clocks / drug effects,  physiology*
Dose-Response Relationship, Drug
Excitatory Amino Acid Agonists / pharmacology
Excitatory Amino Acid Antagonists / pharmacology
Glutamic Acid / metabolism
Medulla Oblongata / drug effects,  physiology*
Motor Neurons / physiology
Nerve Net / drug effects,  physiology*
Neural Pathways / drug effects,  physiology*
Phrenic Nerve / physiology
Receptors, Glutamate / drug effects,  physiology*
Respiratory Center / drug effects,  physiology*
Respiratory Physiological Phenomena*
Time Factors
Reg. No./Substance:
0/Excitatory Amino Acid Agonists; 0/Excitatory Amino Acid Antagonists; 0/Receptors, Glutamate; 56-86-0/Glutamic Acid

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