Document Detail

Cellular response to hyperosmotic stresses.
MedLine Citation:
PMID:  17928589     Owner:  NLM     Status:  MEDLINE    
Cells in the renal inner medulla are normally exposed to extraordinarily high levels of NaCl and urea. The osmotic stress causes numerous perturbations because of the hypertonic effect of high NaCl and the direct denaturation of cellular macromolecules by high urea. High NaCl and urea elevate reactive oxygen species, cause cytoskeletal rearrangement, inhibit DNA replication and transcription, inhibit translation, depolarize mitochondria, and damage DNA and proteins. Nevertheless, cells can accommodate by changes that include accumulation of organic osmolytes and increased expression of heat shock proteins. Failure to accommodate results in cell death by apoptosis. Although the adapted cells survive and function, many of the original perturbations persist, and even contribute to signaling the adaptive responses. This review addresses both the perturbing effects of high NaCl and urea and the adaptive responses. We speculate on the sensors of osmolality and document the multiple pathways that signal activation of the transcription factor TonEBP/OREBP, which directs many aspects of adaptation. The facts that numerous cellular functions are altered by hyperosmolality and remain so, even after adaptation, indicate that both the effects of hyperosmolality and adaptation to it involve profound alterations of the state of the cells.
Maurice B Burg; Joan D Ferraris; Natalia I Dmitrieva
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Publication Detail:
Type:  Journal Article; Research Support, N.I.H., Intramural; Review    
Journal Detail:
Title:  Physiological reviews     Volume:  87     ISSN:  0031-9333     ISO Abbreviation:  Physiol. Rev.     Publication Date:  2007 Oct 
Date Detail:
Created Date:  2007-10-11     Completed Date:  2007-11-20     Revised Date:  -    
Medline Journal Info:
Nlm Unique ID:  0231714     Medline TA:  Physiol Rev     Country:  United States    
Other Details:
Languages:  eng     Pagination:  1441-74     Citation Subset:  IM    
National Heart, Lung, and Blood Institute, Bethesda, Maryland 20892-1603, USA.
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MeSH Terms
Hypertonic Solutions
Kidney Medulla / cytology*,  drug effects
NFATC Transcription Factors / physiology
Osmotic Pressure
Sodium Chloride / pharmacology*
Urea / pharmacology*
Reg. No./Substance:
0/Hypertonic Solutions; 0/NFATC Transcription Factors; 57-13-6/Urea; 7647-14-5/Sodium Chloride

From MEDLINE®/PubMed®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine

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