Document Detail

Cells and cytokines involved in the pathogenesis of sarcoidosis.
MedLine Citation:
PMID:  10207939     Owner:  NLM     Status:  MEDLINE    
Granulomatous inflammation develops under the regulatory influence of cytokines produced by local mononuclear phagocytes, T cells, dendritic cells, fibroblasts, and other local cells. In sarcoidosis, granulomatous inflammation is characterized by dominant expression of T helper 1 (Th1) cytokines such as IFN gamma and interleukin (IL)-2 with low levels of expression of T helper 2 (Th2) cytokines such as IL4 and IL5. Recent studies show that the cytokine IL12, the most important regulator of Th1 immune responses currently known, is upregulated at sites of inflammation in sarcoidosis. In particular, enhanced expression of IL12 is seen in sarcoid lung and lymph node, along with dysregulated production of IL12 by stimulated and unstimulated sarcoid alveolar macrophages. The known dependence of granulomatous inflammation on type 1 cytokines (IFN gamma, IL12) in many experimental models of granulomatous disease makes it likely that these cytokines function in a similar fashion in the initiation and maintenance of granulomatous inflammation in sarcoidosis. Whether these same type 1 cytokines drive granulomatous inflammation in patients with extensive fibrocystic lung disease remains unknown. TGF beta, a known inhibitor of IL12 and IFN gamma production, is produced at higher levels by lung cells from those patients who undergo remission of their disease, suggesting that TGF gamma is important in downregulating granulomatous inflammation in sarcoidosis. These studies offer new insight into the molecular mechanisms of granuloma formation in sarcoidosis and provide a framework for developing new therapeutic strategies for the treatment of this disease.
D R Moller
Related Documents :
12722939 - Disregulated expression of the th2 cytokine gene in patients with intraoral squamous ce...
9095259 - In vivo direction of cd4 t cells to th1 and th2-like patterns of cytokine synthesis.
15177779 - Ifn-beta1a and ifn-beta1b have different patterns of influence on cytokines.
20523059 - Selective down-regulation of th2 cytokines by c-terminal binding protein 2 in human t c...
10515369 - Chronic allograft rejection. do the th2 cells preferentially induced by indirect alloan...
10614729 - Deviation of the allergic ige to an igg response by gene immunotherapy.
9657609 - Avian macrophage metabolism.
20541659 - Glucocorticoid-induced apoptosis of healthy and malignant lymphocytes.
20956349 - Expanded numbers of circulating myeloid dendritic cells in patent human filarial infect...
Publication Detail:
Type:  Journal Article; Research Support, U.S. Gov't, P.H.S.; Review    
Journal Detail:
Title:  Sarcoidosis, vasculitis, and diffuse lung diseases : official journal of WASOG / World Association of Sarcoidosis and Other Granulomatous Disorders     Volume:  16     ISSN:  1124-0490     ISO Abbreviation:  Sarcoidosis Vasc Diffuse Lung Dis     Publication Date:  1999 Mar 
Date Detail:
Created Date:  1999-06-16     Completed Date:  1999-06-16     Revised Date:  2007-11-14    
Medline Journal Info:
Nlm Unique ID:  9610928     Medline TA:  Sarcoidosis Vasc Diffuse Lung Dis     Country:  ITALY    
Other Details:
Languages:  eng     Pagination:  24-31     Citation Subset:  IM; X    
Johns Hopkins University School of Medicine, Baltimore, MD 21224, USA.
Export Citation:
APA/MLA Format     Download EndNote     Download BibTex
MeSH Terms
Cytokines / pharmacology*
Fibrosis / immunology,  physiopathology
Granuloma / immunology*,  physiopathology
Inflammation / physiopathology
Lung Diseases / immunology*,  physiopathology
Macrophages / physiology*
Models, Theoretical
Sarcoidosis / immunology*,  physiopathology
T-Lymphocytes / physiology*
Th1 Cells / physiology
Grant Support
Reg. No./Substance:

From MEDLINE®/PubMed®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine

Previous Document:  Posterior leukoencephalopathy syndrome may not be reversible.
Next Document:  Epithelioid cell granulomatosis of the lung: new insights and concepts.