Document Detail

Cell proliferation kinetics and genotoxicity in lymphocytes of smokers living in Mexico City.
MedLine Citation:
PMID:  17984142     Owner:  NLM     Status:  MEDLINE    
Genotoxicity caused by tobacco smoke was assessed in peripheral blood lymphocytes of smokers living in Mexico City by determining sister chromatid exchange (SCE), cell proliferation kinetics (CPK), replication index (RI) and mitotic index (MI). Nicotine levels, and its major metabolite cotinine, were also estimated in urine samples using gas-chromatography-mass spectrometry to quantify smoking intensity. The outcome of the analysis and the comparison of the 77-smoker group with a non-smoking control group showed that moderate and heavy smokers exhibited significant differences (P < 0.001 and P < 0.05, respectively) in CPK, with an underlying delay in the cellular cycle; similarly, RI was significantly different in these groups (P < 0.001 and P < 0.0001, respectively). There were significant correlations (P < 0.05) between age and number of years the subject had been smoking, as well as between RI and nicotine and cotinine levels and between CPK (M1, M2 and M3) and nicotine and cotinine levels. Smokers were classified for the analysis according to the nicotine levels (it is in relation to number of cigarettes smoked per day) found in urine (ng/mL) as: light (10-250), moderate (251-850) and heavy (851-4110). Significant differences in CPK were found (P < 0.05) between moderate and heavy smokers and non-smokers. Significant differences in RI were found between moderate (P < 0.001) and heavy smokers (P < 0.0001) and non-smokers, but not for the light smoking group. MI was determined in 57 of the smokers, whereas SCE frequency was only recorded in 34 smokers. Both parameters yielded no significant differences, nor correlations with any of the assessed variables. In conclusion, cytokinetic and cytostatic effects were mainly detected in heavy and moderate smokers. Cell cycle delay and RI decrease were found in all ;healthy' smokers. The nicotine and cotinine exposure (causing oxidative damage to DNA) may have implications in the decrease in cell replication due to direct damage to DNA and/or a decrease in the DNA repair mechanisms. Alternatively, nicotine and cotinine may possibly induce apoptosis.
C Calderón-Ezquerro; A Sánchez-Reyes; R H Sansores; R Villalobos-Pietrini; O Amador-Muñoz; C Guerrero-Guerra; M E Calderón-Segura; R Uribe-Hernández; S Gómez-Arroyo
Publication Detail:
Type:  Journal Article    
Journal Detail:
Title:  Human & experimental toxicology     Volume:  26     ISSN:  0960-3271     ISO Abbreviation:  Hum Exp Toxicol     Publication Date:  2007 Sep 
Date Detail:
Created Date:  2007-11-06     Completed Date:  2008-01-31     Revised Date:  -    
Medline Journal Info:
Nlm Unique ID:  9004560     Medline TA:  Hum Exp Toxicol     Country:  England    
Other Details:
Languages:  eng     Pagination:  715-22     Citation Subset:  IM    
Centro de Ciencias de la Atmósfera, Universidad Nacional Autónoma de México.
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MeSH Terms
Case-Control Studies
Cell Cycle / drug effects
Cell Proliferation / drug effects*
Cells, Cultured
Cotinine / toxicity*,  urine
DNA Damage
Gas Chromatography-Mass Spectrometry
Lymphocytes / drug effects*,  pathology
Middle Aged
Mitotic Index
Mutagens / toxicity*
Nicotine / toxicity*,  urine
Nicotinic Agonists / toxicity*,  urine
Oxidative Stress / drug effects
Sister Chromatid Exchange / drug effects*
Smoking / adverse effects*,  urine
Reg. No./Substance:
0/Mutagens; 0/Nicotinic Agonists; 486-56-6/Cotinine; 54-11-5/Nicotine

From MEDLINE®/PubMed®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine

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