Document Detail


Cell death during development.
MedLine Citation:
PMID:  12072175     Owner:  NLM     Status:  MEDLINE    
Abstract/OtherAbstract:
There are many ways to measure apoptosis and other forms of programmed cell death in development. Once nonmammalian embryos have passed the midblastula transition, or much earlier in mammalian embryos, apoptosis is similar to that seen in adult organisms, and is used to sculpt the animal, fuse bilateral tissues, and establish the structure of the nervous system and the immune system. Embryos present unique problems in that, in naturally occurring cell deaths, few cells are involved and they are frequently in very restricted regions. Thus, identification of apoptotic or other dying cells is more effectively achieved by microscopy-based techniques than by electrophoretic or cell-sorting techniques. Since embryos have many mitotic cells and are frequently more difficult to fix than adult tissues, it is best to confirm interpretations by the use of two or more independent techniques. Although natural embryonic deaths are frequently programmed and require protein synthesis, activation of a cell death pathway is often post-translational and assays for transcriptional or translational changes-as opposed to changes in aggregation of death-related molecules or proteolytic activation of enzymes-is likely to be uninformative. Also, embryos can frequently exploit partially redundant pathways, such that the phenotype of a knockout or upregulated death-related gene is often rather modest, even though the adult may develop response or regulation problems. For these reasons, the study of cell death in embryos is fascinating but researchers should be cautious in their analyses.
Authors:
Zahra Zakeri; Richard A Lockshin
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Publication Detail:
Type:  Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't; Research Support, U.S. Gov't, P.H.S.; Review    
Journal Detail:
Title:  Journal of immunological methods     Volume:  265     ISSN:  0022-1759     ISO Abbreviation:  J. Immunol. Methods     Publication Date:  2002 Jul 
Date Detail:
Created Date:  2002-06-19     Completed Date:  2002-08-13     Revised Date:  2007-11-15    
Medline Journal Info:
Nlm Unique ID:  1305440     Medline TA:  J Immunol Methods     Country:  Netherlands    
Other Details:
Languages:  eng     Pagination:  3-20     Citation Subset:  IM    
Affiliation:
Department of Biology, Queens College and Graduate Center of CUNY, 65-30 Kissena Boulevard, Flushing, NY 11367, USA. Zahra_Aakeri@qc.edu
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MeSH Terms
Descriptor/Qualifier:
Animals
Apoptosis*
DNA Fragmentation
Embryo, Mammalian / pathology
Embryonic and Fetal Development*
Female
Gene Expression Regulation
Humans
Microscopy, Electron
Pregnancy
Staining and Labeling
Grant Support
ID/Acronym/Agency:
R15GM/AG57614/GM/NIGMS NIH HHS; R25 GM56821/GM/NIGMS NIH HHS

From MEDLINE®/PubMed®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine


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