Document Detail

Cell cycle alterations and cell death in cyclophosphamide teratogenesis.
MedLine Citation:
PMID:  2572064     Owner:  NLM     Status:  MEDLINE    
Litters of pregnant mice treated with cyclophosphamide (CP) exhibit malformations of the limbs ranging from oligodactyly to amelia. Previous studies have indicated that cell death occurs in limb buds shortly after maternal exposure. We have investigated the relationship of cell death, cell cycle perturbation, and embryo/fetal toxicity in the mouse using vital staining and flow cytometry (FCM). CP (20, 30, and 40 mg/kg) was investigated via intraperitoneal administration to Swiss-Webster mice on day 10 of gestation. At 4, 8, or 28 hours later, embryos were removed. Cell death was identified with Nile blue sulphate (NBS). Two embryos per litter were stained with NBS, and the remaining embryos were frozen at -70 degrees C prior to FCM analysis. After thawing, the forelimb buds were removed for the isolation of nuclei. Tissues were dissociated through a wire mesh followed by cytolysis with 0.1% nonidet P-40 in PBS with 0.5 mg/ml RNase. Nuclei were stained with the fluorescent nucleic acid probe propidium iodide and analyzed (10,000 nuclei per sample) for propidium iodide fluorescence by FCM. NBS revealed a dose-related increase in cell death by 8 hours after dosing. CP-induced cell death was greatest in areas of rapid cell proliferation (DNA synthesis). FCM analysis revealed retardation of progression through the S-phase of the cell cycle by 4 hours post-exposure at all doses. This retardation occurred earlier in S-phase with increasing dose and persisted through 8 hours. At 28 hours, cell cycle histograms were normal in the low-dose embryos, but remained perturbed in the intermediate- and high-dose embryos. On day 17 of gestation, the last group of dams was killed. A high incidence of fetal malformations, including limb defects, occurred at the 20 mg/kg dose, and fetal mortality was observed at 30 and 40 mg/kg. The pattern and magnitude of cell death correlated with cell cycle perturbation and fetal toxicity at term, suggesting a relationship between cell cycle perturbation, cell death, and malformations produced by CP.
N Chernoff; J M Rogers; A J Alles; R M Zucker; K H Elstein; E J Massaro; K K Sulik
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Publication Detail:
Type:  Journal Article    
Journal Detail:
Title:  Teratogenesis, carcinogenesis, and mutagenesis     Volume:  9     ISSN:  0270-3211     ISO Abbreviation:  Teratog., Carcinog. Mutagen.     Publication Date:  1989  
Date Detail:
Created Date:  1989-11-20     Completed Date:  1989-11-20     Revised Date:  2003-11-14    
Medline Journal Info:
Nlm Unique ID:  8100917     Medline TA:  Teratog Carcinog Mutagen     Country:  UNITED STATES    
Other Details:
Languages:  eng     Pagination:  199-209     Citation Subset:  IM    
Developmental Toxicology Division, Environmental Protection Agency, Research Triangle Park, North Carolina.
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MeSH Terms
Cell Cycle / drug effects
Cell Survival / drug effects
Cyclophosphamide / administration & dosage,  toxicity*
Dose-Response Relationship, Drug
Flow Cytometry
Maternal-Fetal Exchange / drug effects
Reg. No./Substance:
0/Teratogens; 50-18-0/Cyclophosphamide

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