Document Detail

Catalytic conversion of cellulose to levulinic acid by metal chlorides.
MedLine Citation:
PMID:  20714297     Owner:  NLM     Status:  MEDLINE    
The catalytic performance of various metal chlorides in the conversion of cellulose to levulinic acid in liquid water at high temperatures was investigated. The effects of reaction parameters on the yield of levulinic acid were also explored. The results showed that alkali and alkaline earth metal chlorides were not effective in conversion of cellulose, while transition metal chlorides, especially CrCl(3), FeCl(3) and CuCl(2) and a group IIIA metal chloride (AlCl(3)), exhibited high catalytic activity. The catalytic performance was correlated with the acidity of the reaction system due to the addition of the metal chlorides, but more dependent on the type of metal chloride. Among those metal chlorides, chromium chloride was found to be exceptionally effective for the conversion of cellulose to levulinic acid, affording an optimum yield of 67 mol % after a reaction time of 180 min, at 200 degrees C, with a catalyst dosage of 0.02 M and substrate concentration of 50 wt %. Chromium metal, most of which was present in its oxide form in the solid sample and only a small part in solution as Cr3+ ion, can be easily separated from the resulting product mixture and recycled. Finally, a plausible reaction scheme for the chromium chloride catalyzed conversion of cellulose in water was proposed.
Lincai Peng; Lu Lin; Junhua Zhang; Junping Zhuang; Beixiao Zhang; Yan Gong
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Publication Detail:
Type:  Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't     Date:  2010-08-02
Journal Detail:
Title:  Molecules (Basel, Switzerland)     Volume:  15     ISSN:  1420-3049     ISO Abbreviation:  Molecules     Publication Date:  2010 Aug 
Date Detail:
Created Date:  2010-08-17     Completed Date:  2010-12-03     Revised Date:  2010-12-15    
Medline Journal Info:
Nlm Unique ID:  100964009     Medline TA:  Molecules     Country:  Switzerland    
Other Details:
Languages:  eng     Pagination:  5258-72     Citation Subset:  IM    
State Key Laboratory of Pulp and Paper Engineering, South China University of Technology, Guangzhou, Guangdong, China.
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MeSH Terms
Carbohydrate Conformation
Cellulose / chemistry*
Chlorides / chemistry*
Chromium Compounds / chemistry
Hydrogen-Ion Concentration
Levulinic Acids / chemistry*
Metals / chemistry*
Photoelectron Spectroscopy
Time Factors
X-Ray Diffraction
Reg. No./Substance:
0/Chlorides; 0/Chromium Compounds; 0/Levulinic Acids; 0/Metals; 10049-05-5/chromous chloride; 123-76-2/levulinic acid; 50-99-7/Glucose; 9004-34-6/Cellulose

From MEDLINE®/PubMed®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine

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