Document Detail

The carotid body and arousal in the fetus and neonate.
MedLine Citation:
PMID:  22684039     Owner:  NLM     Status:  MEDLINE    
Arousal from sleep is a major defense mechanism in infants against hypoxia and/or hypercapnia. Arousal failure may be an important contributor to SIDS. Areas of the brainstem that have been found to be abnormal in a majority of SIDS infants are involved in the arousal process. Arousal is sleep state dependent, being depressed during AS in most mammals, but depressed during QS in human infants. Repeated exposure to hypoxia causes a progressive blunting of arousal that may involve medullary raphe GABAergic mechanisms. Whereas CB chemoreceptors contribute heavily to arousal in response to hypoxia, serotonergic central chemoreceptors have been implicated in the arousal response to CO(2). Pulmonary or chest wall mechanoreceptors also contribute to arousal in proportion to the ventilatory response and decreases in their input may contribute to depressed arousal during AS. Little is known about specific arousal pathways beyond the NTS. Whether CB chemoreceptor stimulation directly stimulates arousal centers or whether this is done indirectly through respiratory networks remains unknown. This review will focus on arousal in response to hypoxia and CO(2) in the fetus and newborn and will outline what we know (and do not know) about the involvement of the carotid body in this process.
Robert A Darnall
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Publication Detail:
Type:  Journal Article; Research Support, N.I.H., Extramural; Review     Date:  2012-06-08
Journal Detail:
Title:  Respiratory physiology & neurobiology     Volume:  185     ISSN:  1878-1519     ISO Abbreviation:  Respir Physiol Neurobiol     Publication Date:  2013 Jan 
Date Detail:
Created Date:  2012-12-03     Completed Date:  2013-07-22     Revised Date:  2014-01-10    
Medline Journal Info:
Nlm Unique ID:  101140022     Medline TA:  Respir Physiol Neurobiol     Country:  Netherlands    
Other Details:
Languages:  eng     Pagination:  132-43     Citation Subset:  IM    
Copyright Information:
Copyright © 2012 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.
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MeSH Terms
Arousal / physiology*
Carotid Body / embryology*,  physiology*
Fetus / physiology*
Infant, Newborn
Sleep / physiology
Sudden Infant Death / etiology
Grant Support

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