Document Detail

Carnosine and homocarnosine, the forgotten, enigmatic peptides of the brain.
MedLine Citation:
PMID:  16341596     Owner:  NLM     Status:  MEDLINE    
Carnosine (beta-alanyl-histidine) and homocarnosine (gamma-aminobutyryl-histidine) are major constituents of excitable tissues, brain and skeletal muscles, but their physiological functions are yet unknown. Using primary cell culture systems, synthesis and uptake of carnosine exclusively by glial cells could be demonstrated. Uptake of carnosine was found to be mediated by a high affinity, energy-dependent dipeptide transport system, subsequently identified as the peptide transporter PepT2. With the synthesis of beta-Ala-Lys-Nepsilon-AMCA as a fluorescent reporter molecule, accumulation of this dipeptide derivative could be monitored under viable conditions not only in astroglia cells but also in folliculostellate cells of the anterior pituitary and in gonadal resident macrophages. This reporter dipeptide provided a most valuable tool to identify an intrapituitary communication system by tracing folliculostellate cells in acute slice preparation. Moreover, this substance could also be used to prepare pituitary cell cultures enriched with or depleted of folliculostellate cells that are needed for further studies.
Karl Bauer
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Publication Detail:
Type:  Journal Article; Review    
Journal Detail:
Title:  Neurochemical research     Volume:  30     ISSN:  0364-3190     ISO Abbreviation:  Neurochem. Res.     Publication Date:  2005 Oct 
Date Detail:
Created Date:  2005-12-12     Completed Date:  2006-02-23     Revised Date:  -    
Medline Journal Info:
Nlm Unique ID:  7613461     Medline TA:  Neurochem Res     Country:  United States    
Other Details:
Languages:  eng     Pagination:  1339-45     Citation Subset:  IM    
Max-Planck-Institute for Experimental Endocrinology, Hannover, Germany.
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MeSH Terms
Biological Transport / physiology
Brain / cytology,  metabolism*
Carnosine / analogs & derivatives*,  chemistry,  metabolism*
Cells, Cultured
Macrophages / metabolism
Molecular Structure
Neuroglia / cytology,  metabolism
Ovary / cytology
Peptides / chemistry,  metabolism
Pituitary Gland, Anterior / cytology
Testis / cytology
Reg. No./Substance:
0/Peptides; 305-84-0/Carnosine; 3650-73-5/homocarnosine

From MEDLINE®/PubMed®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine

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