Document Detail

Cardiovascular changes during underwater static and dynamic breath-hold dives in trained divers.
MedLine Citation:
PMID:  21719730     Owner:  NLM     Status:  MEDLINE    
Limited information exists concerning arterial blood pressure (BP) changes in underwater breath-hold diving. Simulated chamber dives to 50 m of freshwater (mfw) reported very high levels of invasive BP in two divers during static apnea (SA), whereas a recent study using a noninvasive subaquatic sphygmomanometer reported unchanged or mildly increased values at 10 m SA dive. In this study we investigated underwater BP changes during not only SA but, for the first time, dynamic apnea (DA) and shortened (SHT) DA in 16 trained breath-hold divers. Measurements included BP (subaquatic sphygmomanometer), ECG, and pulse oxymetry (arterial oxygen saturation, SpO₂, and heart rate). BP was measured during dry conditions, at surface fully immersed (SA), and at 2 mfw (DA and SHT DA), whereas ECG and pulse oxymetry were measured continuously. We have found significantly higher mean arterial pressure (MAP) values in SA (∼40%) vs. SHT DA (∼30%). Postapneic recovery of BP was slightly slower after SHT DA. Significantly higher BP gain (mmHg/duration of apnea in s) was found in SHT DA vs. SA. Furthermore, DA attempts resulted in faster desaturation vs. SA. In conclusion, we have found moderate increases in BP during SA, DA, and SHT DA. These cardiovascular changes during immersed SA and DA are in agreement with those reported for dry SA and DA.
Toni Breskovic; Lovro Uglesic; Petra Zubin; Benjamin Kuch; Jasenka Kraljevic; Jaksa Zanchi; Marko Ljubkovic; Arne Sieber; Zeljko Dujic
Publication Detail:
Type:  Journal Article     Date:  2011-06-30
Journal Detail:
Title:  Journal of applied physiology (Bethesda, Md. : 1985)     Volume:  111     ISSN:  1522-1601     ISO Abbreviation:  J. Appl. Physiol.     Publication Date:  2011 Sep 
Date Detail:
Created Date:  2011-09-09     Completed Date:  2012-01-11     Revised Date:  2013-09-26    
Medline Journal Info:
Nlm Unique ID:  8502536     Medline TA:  J Appl Physiol (1985)     Country:  United States    
Other Details:
Languages:  eng     Pagination:  673-8     Citation Subset:  IM    
Dept. of Integrative Physiology, Univ. of Split School of Medicine, Soltanska 2, 21000 Split, Croatia.
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MeSH Terms
Analysis of Variance
Apnea / blood,  physiopathology*
Biological Markers / blood
Blood Pressure*
Heart Rate*
Lactic Acid / blood
Linear Models
Oxygen / blood
Recovery of Function
Respiratory Mechanics*
Time Factors
Young Adult
Reg. No./Substance:
0/Biological Markers; 50-21-5/Lactic Acid; 7782-44-7/Oxygen

From MEDLINE®/PubMed®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine

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