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Cardiac involvement in leptospirosis.
MedLine Citation:
PMID:  22818758     Owner:  NLM     Status:  Publisher    
Abstract/OtherAbstract:
Leptospirosis is a neglected global disease with significant morbidity and mortality. Cardiac complications such as chest pain, arrhythmias, pulmonary oedema and refractory shock have been reported in patients with severe disease. However, the frequency and extent of cardiac involvement in leptospirosis, are under-reported and poorly understood. Multiple factors may contribute to clinical manifestations that suggest cardiac involvement, causing diagnostic confusion. A variety of electrocardiographic changes occur in leptospirosis, with atrial fibrillation, atrioventricular conduction blocks and non-specific ventricular repolarization abnormalities being the most common. Electrolyte abnormalities are likely to contribute to electrocardiographic changes; direct effects on Na(+)-K(+)-Cl(-) transporters in the renal tubules have been postulated. Echocardiographic evidence of myocardial dysfunction has not been adequately demonstrated. The diagnostic value of cardiac biomarkers is unknown. Histopathological changes in the myocardium have been clearly shown, with myocardial inflammation and vasculitis present in postmortem studies. Nonetheless, the pathophysiology of cardiac involvement in leptospirosis is poorly understood. Cardiac involvement, demonstrated electrocardiographically or clinically, tends to predict poor outcome. No specific therapies are available to prevent or treat cardiac involvement in leptospirosis; current management is based on correction of deranged homeostasis and supportive therapy. Evidence suggests that direct myocardial damage occurs in patients with severe leptospirosis, and further studies are recommended to elucidate its pathophysiology, clinical features and contribution to overall prognosis, and to identify appropriate diagnostic investigations and specific therapies.
Authors:
Mitrakrishnan Rayno Navinan; Senaka Rajapakse
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Publication Detail:
Type:  JOURNAL ARTICLE     Date:  2012-7-18
Journal Detail:
Title:  Transactions of the Royal Society of Tropical Medicine and Hygiene     Volume:  -     ISSN:  1878-3503     ISO Abbreviation:  -     Publication Date:  2012 Jul 
Date Detail:
Created Date:  2012-7-23     Completed Date:  -     Revised Date:  -    
Medline Journal Info:
Nlm Unique ID:  7506129     Medline TA:  Trans R Soc Trop Med Hyg     Country:  -    
Other Details:
Languages:  ENG     Pagination:  -     Citation Subset:  -    
Copyright Information:
Copyright © 2012 Royal Society of Tropical Medicine and Hygiene. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Affiliation:
National Hospital of Sri Lanka, Regent Street, Colombo 8, Sri Lanka.
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