Document Detail

Cannabis and other illicit drugs: comorbid use and abuse/dependence in males and females.
MedLine Citation:
PMID:  14990863     Owner:  NLM     Status:  MEDLINE    
Cannabis and other illicit drugs are often used or abused comorbidly. Two competing theories to explain this comorbidity are (i) the phenotypic causation (gateway) model and (ii) the correlated liabilities model. We used data from 1191 male and 934 female same-sex twin pairs to test 13 genetically informative models of comorbidity. Models were fit separately for use and abuse/dependence in both sexes. The correlated liabilities model provided a good fit to the data for cannabis and other illicit drug use, as well as abuse/dependence. The relationship between the use or abuse of cannabis and other illicit drugs is not entirely phenotypic, as depicted by the random multiformity of cannabis model, which is an adaptation of the gateway model. The comorbidity appears to arise from correlated genetic and environmental influences. There is some evidence for a model in which high-risk cannabis users may be at increased risk for other illicit drug use. For abuse/dependence, a model with causal pathways between the liability for cannabis and other illicit drug abuse/dependence also fits well. Overall, our results suggest that the use and abuse/dependence of cannabis and other illicit drugs are strongly linked via common risk factors that jointly influence their individual liabilities.
Arpana Agrawal; Michael C Neale; Carol A Prescott; Kenneth S Kendler
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Publication Detail:
Type:  Journal Article; Research Support, U.S. Gov't, P.H.S.; Twin Study    
Journal Detail:
Title:  Behavior genetics     Volume:  34     ISSN:  0001-8244     ISO Abbreviation:  Behav. Genet.     Publication Date:  2004 May 
Date Detail:
Created Date:  2004-03-01     Completed Date:  2005-01-19     Revised Date:  2007-11-14    
Medline Journal Info:
Nlm Unique ID:  0251711     Medline TA:  Behav Genet     Country:  United States    
Other Details:
Languages:  eng     Pagination:  217-28     Citation Subset:  IM    
Department of Human Genetics, Medical College of Virginia of Virginia Commonwealth University, Virginia Institute for Psychiatric and Behavioral Genetics, Richmond, Virginia 23298, USA.
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MeSH Terms
Models, Statistical
Sex Characteristics
Street Drugs*
Substance-Related Disorders / epidemiology*
Twins, Dizygotic
Twins, Monozygotic
United States / epidemiology
Grant Support
Reg. No./Substance:
0/Cannabinoids; 0/Street Drugs
Erratum In:
Behav Genet. 2004 Sep;34(5):557

From MEDLINE®/PubMed®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine

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