Document Detail

Canine and feline caval syndrome.
MedLine Citation:
PMID:  9753797     Owner:  NLM     Status:  MEDLINE    
The caval syndrome is a serious complication of chronic heartworm (Dirofilaria immitis) disease in dogs and cats. The syndrome is characterized by acute anorexia, respiratory distress, weakness, right-sided cardiac murmur, anemia, hemoglobinuria, hepatic and renal dysfunction, signs of forward and backward heart failure, and, possibly, disseminated intravascular coagulation (DIC). Retrograde migration of adult heartworms from the pulmonary arteries to the right ventricle, right atrium, and venae cavae causes disruption of the tricuspid apparatus. Valvular insufficiency, with concurrent pulmonary hypertension, reduces cardiac output thus resulting in forward and backward heart failure. Additionally, red blood cells are traumatized and hemolyzed as they flow through the mass of worms. Therapy consists of supportive care and the removal of the heartworm mass from the right ventricular inflow tract. Caval syndrome in dogs and cats is associated with high mortality rates and generally has a guarded to poor prognosis.
K N Strickland
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Publication Detail:
Type:  Journal Article; Review    
Journal Detail:
Title:  Clinical techniques in small animal practice     Volume:  13     ISSN:  1096-2867     ISO Abbreviation:  Clin Tech Small Anim Pract     Publication Date:  1998 May 
Date Detail:
Created Date:  1998-10-20     Completed Date:  1998-10-20     Revised Date:  2005-11-16    
Medline Journal Info:
Nlm Unique ID:  9806359     Medline TA:  Clin Tech Small Anim Pract     Country:  UNITED STATES    
Other Details:
Languages:  eng     Pagination:  88-95     Citation Subset:  IM    
Louisiana State University, School of Veterinary Medicine, Baton Rouge 70803, USA.
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MeSH Terms
Cat Diseases / pathology*
Diagnosis, Differential
Dirofilariasis / complications*,  pathology
Dog Diseases / pathology*
Echocardiography / veterinary
Heart Valve Diseases / diagnosis,  physiopathology,  veterinary*
Superior Vena Cava Syndrome / diagnosis,  physiopathology,  veterinary*

From MEDLINE®/PubMed®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine

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