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Cancer incidence and patient survival rates among residents in the Pudong New Area of Shanghai between 2002 and 2006.
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PMID:  23149312     Owner:  NLM     Status:  Publisher    
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With the growing threatening of malignancy to health, it is very necessary to analyze cancer incidence and patient survival rates among residents in Pudong New Area to formulate some better cancer prevention strategies. A total of 43 613 cancer patients diagnosed between 2002 and 2006 were recruited from the Pudong New Area Cancer Registry. The incidence rate, observed survival rate, and relative survival rate for patients grouped by sex, age, geographical area, and TNM stage were calculated using the Kaplan-Meier, life table, and Ederer II methods, respectively. Between 2002 and 2006, cancer incidence in Pudong New Area was 349.99 per 100 000 person-years, and the 10 most frequently diseased sites were the lung, stomach, colon and rectum, liver, breast, esophagus, pancreas, brain and central nervous system, thyroid, and bladder. For cancers of the colon and rectum, breast, thyroid, brain and central nervous system, and bladder, the 5-year relative survival rate was greater than 40%, whereas cancers of the liver and pancreas had a 5-year relative survival rate of less than 10%. The 1-year to 5-year survival rate for patients grouped by sex, age, geographic area, and TNM stage differed significantly (all P < 0.001). Our results indicate that cancer incidence and patient survival in Pudong New Area vary by tumor type, sex, age, geographical area, and TNM stage.
Authors:
Xiao-Pan Li; Guang-Wen Cao; Qiao Sun; Chen Yang; Bei Yan; Mei-Yu Zhang; Yi-Fei Fu; Li-Ming Yang
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Type:  JOURNAL ARTICLE     Date:  2012-11-14
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Title:  Chinese journal of cancer     Volume:  -     ISSN:  1944-446X     ISO Abbreviation:  Chin J Cancer     Publication Date:  2012 Nov 
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Created Date:  2012-11-14     Completed Date:  -     Revised Date:  -    
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Nlm Unique ID:  101498232     Medline TA:  Chin J Cancer     Country:  -    
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Languages:  ENG     Pagination:  -     Citation Subset:  -    
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Department of tumors and injury prevention, Center for Disease Control and Prevention, Pudong New Area, Shanghai 200136, P. R. China. sunqiao163@hotmail.com.
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Journal ID (nlm-ta): Chin J Cancer
Journal ID (iso-abbrev): Chin J Cancer
Journal ID (publisher-id): CJC
ISSN: 1000-467X
ISSN: 1944-446X
Publisher: Sun Yat-sen University Cancer Center
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Chinese Journal of Cancer
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Received Day: 30 Month: 7 Year: 2012
Revision Received Day: 17 Month: 9 Year: 2012
Accepted Day: 21 Month: 9 Year: 2012
Print publication date: Month: 9 Year: 2013
Volume: 32 Issue: 9
First Page: 512 Last Page: 519
PubMed Id: 23149312
ID: 3845567
Publisher Id: cjc-32-09-512
DOI: 10.5732/cjc.012.10200

Cancer incidence and patient survival rates among the residents in the Pudong New Area of Shanghai between 2002 and 2006
Xiao-Pan Li1
Guang-Wen Cao2
Qiao Sun1
Chen Yang1
Bei Yan1
Mei-Yu Zhang1
Yi-Fei Fu1
Li-Ming Yang1
1Department of Tumors and Injury Prevention, Center for Disease Control and Prevention, Pudong New Area, Shanghai 200136, P. R. China;
2Department of Epidemiology, Second Military Medical University, Shanghai 200433, P. R. China.
Correspondence: Corresponding Author: Qiao Sun, Center for Disease Control and Prevention, Pudong New Area, 3039 Zhangyang Road, Shanghai 200136, P. R. China. Tel: +86-21-50342462; Fax: +86-21-38714688. Email: sunqiao163@hotmail.com.

With the intensification of environmental change and an aging population, cancer has gradually become the primary cause of death for urban residents in China[1]. Pudong New Area, the forerunner of China's urbanization and new rural construction process, has undergone tremendous changes in the past 20 years. Cancer has been ranked as the second leading cause of death in the district since 1993[2],[3]. To date, there have been no studies to appropriately detect the impact of changes in the living environment on cancer incidence and patient survival for those in urban China. Having undergone changes representative of those occurring country wide, Pudong New Area is a useful model with which to analyze these effects.

In the current study, we selected 43,613 cancer patients among the residents in the Pudong New Area of Shanghai diagnosed between 2002 and 2006, and we analyzed cancer incidence and patient survival among groups based on sex, age, geographic area, and TNM stage. We report here that the elderly men living in urban areas were more susceptible to cancer and the elderly men living in rural areas with liver cancer or pancreatic cancer maybe got a poor prognosis. These findings suggest that the cancer prevention strategies should be based on sex, age, tumor type, and tumor pathologic stage in Pudong New Area or other place in China.


Patients and Methods
Study patients

We collected information about patients diagnosed with cancer between 2002 and 2006 among the residents of Pudong New Area from the Pudong New Area Cancer Registry[4],[5]. Population data were provided by the Statistics Bureau and the Public Security Bureau of Pudong New Area.

Follow-up after first diagnosis

Clinical and histopathologic data, including household register and TNM stage at the time of surgical treatment, were obtained from the Pudong New Area Cancer Registry. Patients who gave informed consent and accepted the community doctors' survey were followed. Follow-up entailed household survey was conducted by telephone calls every year according to our standard epidemiologic procedure. The survival information of patients lost to follow-up was obtained from the coroner's registrar.

Statistical analyses

Cancer incidence for the resident household population was calculated based on the annual average population in Pudong New Area. Overall survival was analyzed using the Kaplan-Meier method. The observed survival rate (OSR) was analyzed with the life table method, the expected survival rate (ESR) was analyzed with the Ederer II method, and the relative survival rate (RSR) was equal to OSR divided by ESR[6]. The log-rank test was used to compare survival curves. All statistical analyses were two-sided and performed using the Statistical Package for the Social Sciences software version 16.0 (SPSS, Inc., Chicago, IL). Statistical significance was set at P < 0.05.


Results
Survival of the whole population

We collected information about 43,163 patients with cancer in Pudong New Area. The median patient age was 68. In total, 42,484 patients were followed up and the remaining 1,129 patients were lost to follow-up. As of January 1, 2012, 30,194 patients who were followed up had died, and 12,290 were still alive.

Between 2002 and 2006, permanent residents collectively survived 12,461,038 person-years, with a rate of 6,240,355 person-years for males and 6,220,683 person-years for females. The incidence was 349.99 per 100,000 person-years, and the 10 most frequently diseased sites were the lung, stomach, colon and rectum, liver, breast, esophagus, pancreas, brain and central nervous system, thyroid, and bladder. The median survival (in days) of patients with cancer of these sites was 233 (lung), 415 (stomach), 1,332 (colon and rectum), 126 (liver), 3,685 (breast), 270 (esophagus), 119 (pancreas), 2,549 (brain and central nervous system), 3,645 (thyroid), and 2,829 (bladder). At 1, 2, 3, 4, and 5 years for all cancer patients, the OSR was 45.53%, 39.99%, 36.83%, 34.54%, and 32.72%, respectively, and the RSR was 48.92%, 44.89%, 43.95%, 43.38%, and 42.62%, respectively (data not shown in Tables or Figures). Cancers with a 5-year RSR greater than 40% occurred in the colon and rectum, breast, thyroid, brain and central nervous system, and bladder. In contrast, cancers of the liver and pancreas had a 5-year RSR less than 10%. The top 5 cancers in Pudong New Area occurred in the lung, stomach, colon and rectum, liver, and breast; the 5-year OSR was 8.53%, 25.87%, 42.69%, 7.07%, and 75.77%, respectively, and the 5-year RSR was 12.37%, 35.24%, 58.26%, 9.24%, and 86.13%, respectively (Table 1).

Survival of different groups

Between 2002 and 2006, the cancer incidence ratio in males to females was 1.22:1. More specifically, the incidence in males was 383.92 per 100,000 person-years, which was higher than that in females (315.96 per 100,000 person-years). Cancer incidence in the Pudong New Area was the highest in the elderly population. Patients aged 65 to 74 years accounted for 26.72% (11,652 of 43,613) of cases, and patients aged 75 and older accounted for 27.42% (11,959 of 43,613) of cases. The age-specific incidence was 1,176.80 per 100,000 person-years for patients aged 65 to 74 years and 1,760.22 per 100,000 person-years for patients aged 75 and older.

The survival rates for patients who were females, were urban residents, had tumors of low TNM stage, or were in low age groups were significantly higher than those for patients who were males, were rural residents, had tumors of high TNM stage, or were in high age groups, respectively (all P < 0.001) (Figures 1Aa-d and Table 2).

Patient survival for cancers of the three most frequently diseased sites
Lung cancer

Among the patients with lung cancer diagnosed between 2002 and 2006, 5,698 were males, with a median age of 68 years, and 2,286 were females, with a median age of 68 years. The crude incidence was 64.01 per 100,000 person-years. The crude incidence for males was 91.31 per 100,000 person-years, which was significantly higher than that for females (36.75 per 100,000 person-years) (U = 4.82, P < 0.01). Lung cancer incidence in Pudong New Area peaked in the elderly population, with patients aged 65 to 74 years accounting for 34.67% (2,768 of 7,984) of cases and patients aged 75 and older accounting for 33.64% (2,686 of 7,984) of cases. The age-specific incidence was 279.56 per 100,000 person-years for patients aged 65 to 74 years and 395.35 per 100,000 person-years for patients aged 75 and older.

The 1-, 3-, and 5-year OSR of patients with lung cancer was 19.11%, 11.07%, and 8.53%, respectively, and the RSR was 20.67%, 13.66%, and 12.37%, respectively. The survival of patients who were females, were urban residents, had tumors of low TNM stage, or were in low age groups was significantly higher than that for patients who were males, were rural residents, had tumors of high TNM stage, or were in high age groups, respectively (all P < 0.001) (Figures 1Ba-d and Table 3).

Gastric cancer

Between 2002 and 2006, 3,298 patients with gastric cancer were males, with a median age of 66 years, whereas 1,932 were females, with a median age of 66 years. The crude incidence was 41.97 per 100,000 person-years. Like for lung cancer, the crude incidence of gastric cancer in males was significantly higher than that in females (52.85 per 100,000 person-years for males vs. 31.06 per 100,000 person-years for females; U = 2.37, P < 0.01). Furthermore, in Pudong New Area, gastric cancer incidence was the highest among the elderly, with 29.77% (1,557 of 5,230) of cases occurring in patients aged 65 to 74 years and 30.82% (1,612 of 5,230) of cases occurring in patients aged 75 years and older. As for the patients aged 65 and 74 years, the age-specific incidence was 157.25 per 100,000 person-years; but for the patients aged 75 years and older, the age-specific incidence was 237.27 per 100,000 person-years.

The OSR at 1, 3, and 5 years for gastric cancer patients was 39.43%, 29.58%, and 25.87%, respectively, and the RSR at those years was 42.63%, 35.97%, and 35.24%, respectively. The survival of patients with tumors of low TNM stage or patients in low age groups was significantly higher than that of patients with tumors of high TNM stage or patients in high age groups (χ2 = 708.450 and 413.604, respectively; P < 0.001). There was no significant difference in survival based on sex or geographic area (χ2 = 0.029 and 3.442, P = 0.865 and 0.179, respectively) (Figures 1Ca-d and Table 4).

Colorectal cancer

Among the patients diagnosed with colorectal cancer between 2002 and 2006, 2,539 were males, with a median age of 66, and 2,335 were females, with a median age of 66. The crude incidence was 39.11 per 100,000 person-years. For males, this rate was 40.69 per 100,000 person-years and was higher than that in females (37.54 per 100,000 person-years). However, this difference was not significant (U = 0.356, P > 0.05). As observed for coloretal cancer, lung cancer and gastric cancer, colorectal cancer incidence in Pudong New Area was the highest for individuals aged 65 years and older. Indeed, patients aged 65 to 74 years old accounted for 31.23% (1,522 of 4,874) of cases, and patients aged 75 years and older accounted for 30.61% (1,492 of 4,874) of cases. The age-specific incidence was 153.71 per 100,000 person-years for patients aged 65 to 74 years and 219.60 per 100,000 person-years for patients aged 75 years and older.

The 1-, 3-, and 5-year OSR of colorectal cancer patients was 61.16%, 48.5%, and 42.69%, respectively, and the corresponding RSRs were 66.04%, 59.05%, and 58.26%, respectively. The survival of patients who were females or had tumors of low TNM stage was significantly higher than that for patients who were males or had tumors of high TNM stage, respectively (P = 0.004 and P < 0.001, respectively). There was no significant difference in survival by geographic area (P = 0.568) (Figures 1Da-d and Table 5).


Discussion

Here, we report that patients diagnosed with cancer between 2002 and 2006 in Pudong New Area had a 5-year RSR of 42.62%. This rate was 35.14% for males and 53.79% for females, both of which were higher than that of Cixian county[7] and Nanhui district of Shanghai[8]. Additionally, the 5-year RSR for lung cancer patients in Pudong New Area was lower than that for patients in the five countries in central Europe[9]. The 5-year RSR may vary with socioeconomic conditions, suggesting that cancer prevention and control strategies should be tailored to each distinct set of socioeconomic conditions. To improve the quality of life and overall survival of cancer patients in China, medical care for cancer patients should be strengthened in key areas, such as rural areas.

As the body's carcinogenic risk factors accumulated and its recovery level decreases, cancer incidence increases[10]. Therefore, the high incidence we observed is a corroboration of an aging population in Pudong New Area[11]. It reminds us that some effective measures must be taken to prevent the elderly people suffering from cancer.

We found that the 5-year survival rate of patients in Pudong New Area who have tumors of early TNM stage is much higher than that of patients with tumors of advanced stage. This suggests that screening for early diagnosis is an effective method to improve the survival of cancer patients. Moreover, China has a high incidence and mortality of gastric cancer worldwide. The early symptoms of this disease are highly intricate and often misdiagnosed, resulting in patients ultimately being diagnosed with late-stage gastric cancer and experiencing a very high mortality[12]. Although the 5-year OSR of patients with late-stage gastric cancer in Pudong New Area was 14.85%, which is much higher than that of patients with stage IV gastric cancer in the study by Xue et al.[13], it is far below the OSR of patients with early-stage disease. Furthermore, in recent years, a lot of progress has been made in colorectal cancer screening[14]. We observed that patients with early-stage disease had a higher survival rate than patients with late-stage disease, suggesting that colorectal cancer screening is necessary in the region.

The top 10 cancers in Pudong New Area differed from that of Shanghai or the nation. Colorectal cancer, prostate cancer, and renal carcinoma ranked second, seventh, and tenth, respectively, in Shanghai, whereas bladder cancer ranked eighth and thyroid cancer ranked out of the top 10, and the last three of top ten cancers in China were bladder cancer, brain cancer and lymphoma from 2003 to 2007[15]. In addition, the top 10 cancers in males and females in Pudong New Area and in the world differed from each other. Unlike in Pudong New Area, the top 10 cancers in the world included non-Hodgkin's lymphoma and cancers of the oral cavity in males and cervical cancer and uterine cancer in females[12]. The reason for this difference may be associated with the district's geographic location and population structure.

Although our study provides novel insight into cancer incidence and patient survival in Pudong New Area, it has several limitations. First, the study subjects were permanent residents, who make up only one component of the resident population in the district. As Pudong has frequent and unstable population exchange, it is possible that we have overestimated the incidence of cancer by focusing solely on permanent residents. Second, because the information of tumor recurrence or metastasis was difficult to obtain, the disease-free survival could not be calculated, therefore, it is difficult to estimate the patient's quality of life.

In summary, the current study demonstrated that tumor type, sex, age, geographic location, and TNM stage are associated with poor prognosis in patients with cancer. Additional work is needed to determine how to improve the survival of cancer patients.


This study was supported by a grant from the Fund of Key Discipline Construction in Pudong New Area Health System (No. PWZxk2010-009).


References
1. Chen Z. The report of the third retrospective sampling survey of cause of death in ChinaBeijingChinese Peking Union Medical College PressYear: 20081847 [in Chinese].
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3. Yang C. Analysis of tumor cancer mortality in Pudong district of Shanghai 1993–2004TumorYear: 200525504505 [in Chinese].
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5. Wu F,Lu W,Li DL,et al. Adjustment and perfection on cancer registry system in ShanghaiChina CancerYear: 200211316318 [in Chinese].
6. Xiang YB,Jin F,Sun L,et al. The relative survival analysis of cancer patients in urban of ShanghaiTumorYear: 199010193196 [in Chinese].
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9. Brenner H,Francisci S,de Angelis R,et al. Long-term survival expectations of cancer patients in Europe in 2000-2002Eur J CancerYear: 2009451028104119091549
10. He J,Gu D,Wu X,et al. Major causes of death among men and women in ChinaN Engl J MedYear: 20053531124113416162883
11. Yang LM,Li XP,Yang C,et al. Incidence and survival condition of primary liver cancer among residents in Pudong district of Shanghai, between 2002 and 2011Chin J EpidemiolYear: 20123310271031 [in Chinese].
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Figures

[Figure ID: cjc-32-09-512-g001]
Figure 1.  Survival of cancer patients among the residents in the Pudong New Area of Shanghai between 2002 and 2006.

The curves show the survival of patients with all cancers (A), lung cancer (B), gastric cancer (C), and colorectal cancer (D) as grouped by sex (a), geographic area (b), TNM stage (c), and age (d).



Tables
[TableWrap ID: cjc-32-09-512-t01] Table 1.  Patient survival of the top 10 cancers in Pudong New Area, 2002-2006
Rank Cancer site(s) Number of cases Incidence (per 100,000 person-years) Median survival (days) 1-year
2-year
3-year
4-year
5-year
OSR (%) RSR (%) OSR (%) RSR (%) OSR (%) RSR (%) OSR (%) RSR (%) OSR (%) RSR (%)
1 Lung 7,984 64.07 233 19.11 20.67 13.68 15.63 11.07 13.66 9.47 12.85 8.53 12.37
2 Stomach 5,230 41.97 415 39.43 42.63 32.93 37.39 29.58 35.97 27.55 35.43 25.87 35.24
3 Colon, rectum 4,874 39.11 1,332 61.16 66.04 53.53 60.76 48.50 59.05 45.26 59.01 42.69 58.26
4 Liver 4,019 32.25 126 17.04 18.13 12.66 13.94 10.30 11.91 8.61 10.55 7.07 9.24
5 Breast 3,215 25.80 3,685 89.89 92.52 85.04 89.33 81.03 87.57 78.41 87.22 75.77 86.13
6 Esophagus 1,608 12.90 270 24.00 26.48 17.29 20.26 14.74 18.80 13.00 18.39 12.10 18.22
7 Pancreas 1,540 12.36 119 7.14 7.92 5.32 6.26 4.68 5.97 3.96 5.58 3.81 5.81
8 Brain, central nervous system 1,408 11.30 2,549 63.00 65.71 58.66 63.01 56.25 62.95 54.12 62.63 52.04 62.32
9 Thyroid 1,170 9.39 3,645 93.42 95.26 92.22 95.22 91.03 95.15 89.32 94.89 87.86 94.63
10 Bladder 1,130 9.07 2,829 71.86 79.59 64.96 76.18 60.97 75.46 57.52 75.04 54.69 74.32

nt101OSR, observed survival rate; RSR, relative survival rate.


[TableWrap ID: cjc-32-09-512-t02] Table 2.  Patient survival of the top 10 cancers in Pudong New Area, 2002-2006
Feature Number of cases Incidence (per 100,000 person-years) Median survival (days) 1-year
3-year
5-year
OSR (%) RSR (%) OSR (%) RSR (%) OSR (%) RSR (%)
Sex Male 23,958 383.92 374 37.70 40.56 28.61 35.43 24.51 35.14
Female 19,655 315.96 1,084 55.07 59.32 46.85 54.51 42.73 53.79
Age 35-44 2,938 140.02 3,685 68.21 68.30 61.98 62.45 59.31 60.43
45-54 7,949 316.47 2,330 62.15 62.34 54.18 55.16 50.48 52.78
55-64 7,714 569.22 859 52.70 53.05 43.83 45.61 39.55 43.69
65-74 11,652 1,176.80 421 40.20 41.05 30.58 34.62 25.89 34.21
Geographic area Rural 6,005 317.05 360 38.02 40.88 30.56 36.38 27.03 35.54
Urban 18,605 414.90 672 48.72 52.39 39.40 46.90 35.08 46.72
Town 19,003 312.41 519 44.77 48.14 36.29 43.20 32.20 42.72
TNM stage I+II 8,967 - 3,685 80.63 86.70 71.45 85.06 66.43 84.26
III+IV 9,707 - 295 29.36 31.57 19.42 23.12 15.70 21.81
Unknown 24,939 - 371 39.19 42.14 31.15 37.08 27.22 36.81

nt102TNM stage, tumor-lymph node-metastasis classification; -, data not shown. Other footnotes as in Table 1.


[TableWrap ID: cjc-32-09-512-t03] Table 3.  Survival of lung cancer patients in Pudong New Area from 2002 to 2006 by sex, age, geographic area, and TNM stage
Feature Number of cases Incidence (per 100,000 person-years) Median survival (days) 1-year
3-year
5-year
OSR (%) RSR (%) OSR (%) RSR (%) OSR (%) RSR (%)
Sex Male 5,698 91.31 224 17.73 19.14 10.18 12.98 7.92 12.02
Female 2,286 36.75 266 22.57 24.91 13.30 16.33 10.05 14.51
Age 35-44 221 10.53 333 30.32 30.36 20.36 20.52 17.65 17.99
45-54 924 36.79 382 28.35 28.44 19.26 19.61 16.77 17.55
55-64 1,341 98.95 316 26.92 27.11 17.38 18.11 14.20 15.74
65-74 2,768 279.56 248 19.48 19.88 11.02 12.48 8.20 11.16
Geographic area Rural 1,235 65.21 198 15.32 16.65 9.97 12.31 7.58 11.48
Urban 3,161 70.49 233 19.15 20.82 10.22 12.62 7.77 11.77
Town 3,588 58.99 243 20.41 22.18 12.21 15.07 9.53 14.44
TNM stage I+II 800 - 983 57.00 61.96 42.88 52.94 37.47 52.77
III+IV 2,982 - 230 14.76 16.04 7.11 8.78 4.99 7.56
Unknown 4,202 - 190 15.00 16.30 7.84 9.68 5.55 8.41

nt103Footnotes as in Table 2.


[TableWrap ID: cjc-32-09-512-t04] Table 4.  Survival of gastric cancer patients in Pudong New Area from 2002 to 2006 by sex, age, geographic area, and TNM stage
Feature Number of cases Incidence (per 100,000 person-years) Median survival (days) 1-year
3-year
5-year
OSR (%) RSR (%) OSR (%) RSR (%) OSR (%) RSR (%)
Sex Male 3,298 52.85 436 39.90 42.86 29.16 36.22 25.40 35.95
Female 1,932 31.06 385 38.68 42.50 30.35 36.77 26.71 34.55
Age 35-44 261 12.44 816 53.26 53.33 45.21 45.55 40.83 41.61
45-54 819 32.61 1,180 56.78 56.95 47.25 48.10 42.48 44.42
55-64 914 67.44 782 52.08 52.43 40.15 41.79 36.12 39.91
65-74 1,557 157.25 454 40.39 41.18 29.58 33.46 26.00 35.37
Geographic area Rural 729 38.49 360 36.49 39.24 26.75 32.62 23.01 32.35
Urban 2,138 47.68 428 40.57 43.62 30.79 37.55 27.24 36.48
Town 2,363 38.85 420 39.35 42.31 29.39 35.84 25.55 34.03
TNM stage I+II 798 - 3,243 72.18 77.61 60.90 74.27 54.86 73.51
III+IV 1,283 - 300 28.14 30.26 18.16 22.15 14.85 21.52
Unknown 3,149 - 360 35.76 38.45 26.32 32.10 23.03 31.38

nt104Footnotes as in Table 2.


[TableWrap ID: cjc-32-09-512-t05] Table 5.  Survival of colorectal cancer patients in Pudong New Area from 2002 to 2006 by sex, age, geographic area, and TNM stage
Feature Number of cases Incidence (per 100,000 person-years) Median survival (days) 1-year
3-year
5-year
OSR (%) RSR (%) OSR (%) RSR (%) OSR (%) RSR (%)
Sex Male 2,539 40.69 1,241 60.03 64.90 47.30 59.36 41.00 58.95
Female 2,335 37.54 1,429 62.36 67.41 49.76 59.29 44.47 57.43
Age 35-44 199 9.48 3,685 73.37 73.46 62.81 63.29 55.92 57.00
45-54 739 29.42 3,624 73.21 73.43 62.79 63.95 58.01 60.72
55-64 875 64.57 2,911 70.51 70.98 59.77 62.22 54.39 60.14
65-74 1,522 153.71 1,477 64.37 65.73 50.23 56.91 43.45 59.22
Geographic area Rural 519 27.40 1,117 58.38 62.77 46.05 56.16 41.45 56.07
Urban 2,356 52.54 1,326 61.74 66.39 48.41 59.04 42.01 58.88
Town 1,999 32.86 1,395 61.16 65.76 49.20 60.00 43.75 59.41
TNM stage I+II 1,123 - 3,601 82.72 88.95 68.83 83.94 62.20 81.14
III+IV 1,245 - 741 50.28 54.06 36.14 44.07 30.31 43.93
Unknown 2,506 - 1,085 56.85 61.13 45.47 55.45 40.03 54.01

nt105Footnotes as in Table 2.



Article Categories:
  • Original Article

Keywords: Cancer, survival analysis, observed survival rate, relative survival rate.

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