Document Detail

Can size and rigidity of objects influence infant's proximal and distal adjustments of reaching?
MedLine Citation:
PMID:  21519715     Owner:  NLM     Status:  MEDLINE    
BACKGROUND: It has been found that objects influence the adjustments to reaching of breastfeeding infants, however, it has not been investigated whether these adjustments change in older infants.
OBJECTIVES: The aim of this study was to determine whether the size and rigidity of objects influence the proximal and distal adjustments to reaching of infants of 6, 7, 8 and 36 months of age.
METHODS: Nine healthy infants were presented with: one large rigid, one small rigid, one large malleable and one small malleable object. The movements were videotaped and later analyzed qualitatively with regard to proximal (unimanual and bimanual reaching) and distal adjustments (horizontal, vertical and oblique hand orientation, opened, half-open and closed hand) and with regard to grasping of these objects (with and without). Friedman test and Dunn multiple comparisons were applied and 0.05 was considered as a significant difference.
RESULTS: Infants of 36 months of age performed more unimanual reaching than younger infants. Additionally, at all ages, unimanual reaching was particularly performed for small objects. At 36 months of age infants guided the hand horizontally to touch and grasp the objects, while at 6 and 7 months the hand orientation was oblique to touch and vertical to grasp the objects, regardless of the object's properties. Over the months, both at the beginning and at the end of reaching, the hands became more open, especially to touch the large rigid object, and infants increasingly performed reaching with successful grasping, especially for malleable or small objects.
CONCLUSIONS: From 6 to 36 months of age, the reaching became more refined and the infants adjusted to the different properties of the objects which were observed through changes in the proximal and distal adjustments.
Fernanda P S Silva; Nelci A C F Rocha; Eloísa Tudella
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Publication Detail:
Type:  Journal Article    
Journal Detail:
Title:  Revista brasileira de fisioterapia (São Carlos (São Paulo, Brazil))     Volume:  15     ISSN:  -     ISO Abbreviation:  Rev Bras Fisioter     Publication Date:    2011 Jan-Feb
Date Detail:
Created Date:  2011-04-26     Completed Date:  2011-09-29     Revised Date:  2013-08-21    
Medline Journal Info:
Nlm Unique ID:  101186153     Medline TA:  Rev Bras Fisioter     Country:  Brazil    
Other Details:
Languages:  eng     Pagination:  37-44     Citation Subset:  IM    
Departamento de Fisioterapia, Universidade Federal de São Carlos, São Carlos, SP, Brasil.
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MeSH Terms
Adaptation, Physiological
Child, Preschool
Hand / physiology*
Movement / physiology*
Size Perception / physiology*
Space Perception / physiology*

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