Document Detail

Cadmium exposure of women in general populations in Japan during 1991-1997 compared with 1977-1981.
MedLine Citation:
PMID:  10672488     Owner:  NLM     Status:  MEDLINE    
OBJECTIVES: The Japanese people are known to have high environmental exposure to cadmium (Cd). The present survey was initiated to elucidate possible changes in the intensity of Cd exposure to the population by comparison of the present exposure level with the situation some 15 years ago. METHODS: During 1991-1997, 24-h food-duplicate samples, peripheral blood specimens and morning spot urine samples were collected from 588 non smoking women from 27 survey sites in six regions, where food-duplicate and blood samples had also been obtained during 1977-1981 from 399 women. The samples were wet-ashed (after homogenization in the case of food-duplicates), and Cd in the wet-ashed samples was analyzed by inductively-coupled plasma mass spectrometry for Cd intake via foods (Cd-F), Cd concentration in blood (Cd-B) and Cd concentration in urine (Cd-U). The Cd-F and Cd-B were compared with the Cd-F and Cd-B obtained at the same sites in the 1977-1981 survey. RESULTS: The exposure levels during 1991-1997 were such that Cd-F, Cd-B and Cd-Ucr (Cd-U after correction for creatinine concentration) were 25.5 micrograms/day, 1.90 micrograms/l and 4.39 micrograms/g creatinine. Comparison with the 1977-1981 survey results (i.e., 37.5 micrograms/day for Cd-F and 3.47 micrograms/l for Cd-B) showed that there were significant reductions (by 32 and 45%) in both parameters respectively during the last 15 years. The dietary route was an almost exclusive (i.e., 99% of the sum of dietary and respiratory uptake) route of Cd uptake, of which Cd in rice (11.7 micrograms/day) contributed about 40% of the total dietary intake. When compared among survey sites, inter-site variation in dietary Cd intake was primarily due to differences in the intake through boiled rice. Despite the recent reduction in Cd exposure, the current exposure level for Japanese people is still higher than the levels among other rice-dependent populations in Asia as well as in other parts of the world. Comparison was made between the present findings in general populations and observations among known Cd-pollution cases in Japan. CONCLUSIONS: Dietary uptake is an almost exclusive route of Cd exposure in the general Japanese population. Boiled rice is a strong determinant of variation in dietary Cd intake. Whereas there was a substantial reduction in Cd exposure among Japanese populations in the last 15 years, the current level is still high when compared internationally.
T Watanabe; Z W Zhang; C S Moon; S Shimbo; H Nakatsuka; N Matsuda-Inoguchi; K Higashikawa; M Ikeda
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Publication Detail:
Type:  Comparative Study; Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't    
Journal Detail:
Title:  International archives of occupational and environmental health     Volume:  73     ISSN:  0340-0131     ISO Abbreviation:  Int Arch Occup Environ Health     Publication Date:  2000 Jan 
Date Detail:
Created Date:  2000-04-11     Completed Date:  2000-04-11     Revised Date:  2006-11-15    
Medline Journal Info:
Nlm Unique ID:  7512134     Medline TA:  Int Arch Occup Environ Health     Country:  GERMANY    
Other Details:
Languages:  eng     Pagination:  26-34     Citation Subset:  IM    
Miyagi University of Education, Sendai, Japan.
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MeSH Terms
Cadmium / analysis*,  blood,  urine
Creatinine / urine
Environmental Exposure
Food Analysis
Reg. No./Substance:
60-27-5/Creatinine; 7440-43-9/Cadmium

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