Document Detail

The CRISPRs, They Are A-Changin': How Prokaryotes Generate Adaptive Immunity.
MedLine Citation:
PMID:  23145983     Owner:  NLM     Status:  In-Data-Review    
All organisms need to continuously adapt to changes in their environment. Through horizontal gene transfer, bacteria and archaea can rapidly acquire new traits that may contribute to their survival. However, because new DNA may also cause damage, removal of imported DNA and protection against selfish invading DNA elements are also important. Hence, there should be a delicate balance between DNA uptake and DNA degradation. Here, we describe prokaryotic antiviral defense systems, such as receptor masking or mutagenesis, blocking of phage DNA injection, restriction/modification, and abortive infection. The main focus of this review is on CRISPR (clustered regularly interspaced short palindromic repeats)/Cas (CRISPR-associated), a prokaryotic adaptive immune system. Since its recent discovery, our biochemical understanding of this defense system has made a major leap forward. Three highly diverse CRISPR/Cas types exist that display major structural and functional differences in their mode of generating resistance against invading nucleic acids. Because several excellent recent reviews cover all CRISPR subtypes, we mainly focus on a detailed description of the type I-E CRISPR/Cas system of the model bacterium Escherichia coli K12.
Edze R Westra; Daan C Swarts; Raymond H J Staals; Matthijs M Jore; Stan J J Brouns; John van der Oost
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Publication Detail:
Type:  Journal Article    
Journal Detail:
Title:  Annual review of genetics     Volume:  46     ISSN:  1545-2948     ISO Abbreviation:  Annu. Rev. Genet.     Publication Date:  2012 Dec 
Date Detail:
Created Date:  2012-11-13     Completed Date:  -     Revised Date:  -    
Medline Journal Info:
Nlm Unique ID:  0117605     Medline TA:  Annu Rev Genet     Country:  United States    
Other Details:
Languages:  eng     Pagination:  311-39     Citation Subset:  IM    
Laboratory of Microbiology, Department of Agrotechnology and Food Sciences, Wageningen University, 6703 HB Wageningen, The Netherlands; email: ,
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