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Brominated flame retardants and polychlorinated biphenyls in human breast milk from several locations in India: Potential contaminant sources in a municipal dumping site.
MedLine Citation:
PMID:  22208746     Owner:  NLM     Status:  In-Data-Review    
Abstract/OtherAbstract:
This study investigated the status of contamination of organohalogen compounds (OCs) such as polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) and brominated flame retardant (BFRs), including polybrominated diphenyl ethers (PBDEs) and hexabromocyclododecanes (HBCDs) in human milk samples from several locations in India. The levels of OCs were significantly higher in the milk of mothers living in and near municipal dumping site than other locations indicating that the open dumping sites for municipal wastes act as potential sources of these contaminants in India. The PCB concentrations observed in this study tended to decrease compared to those in the matched locations reported previously, probably due to the restriction of technical PCB usage in India. PBDE levels in human milk were two to three folds lower than those of PCBs in all the sampling locations investigated. Congener profiles of PCBs and PBDEs were different between samples from the dumping site mothers and general populations in other areas suggesting the presence of region-specific sources and pathways. HBCDs were detected in human milk from only two sites, with much lower concentrations and detection frequencies compared to PCBs and PBDEs. When hazard quotients (HQs) of PCBs and PBDEs were estimated for infant health risk, the HQs in some milk samples from the dumping site exceeded the threshold value (HQ>1) of PCBs, indicating the potential risk for infants in the specific site.
Authors:
Gnanasekaran Devanathan; Annamalai Subramanian; Agus Sudaryanto; Shin Takahashi; Tomohiko Isobe; Shinsuke Tanabe
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Publication Detail:
Type:  Journal Article     Date:  2011-11-10
Journal Detail:
Title:  Environment international     Volume:  39     ISSN:  1873-6750     ISO Abbreviation:  Environ Int     Publication Date:  2012 Feb 
Date Detail:
Created Date:  2012-01-02     Completed Date:  -     Revised Date:  -    
Medline Journal Info:
Nlm Unique ID:  7807270     Medline TA:  Environ Int     Country:  Netherlands    
Other Details:
Languages:  eng     Pagination:  87-95     Citation Subset:  IM    
Copyright Information:
Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Affiliation:
Center for Marine Environmental Studies (CMES), Ehime University, 2-5 Bunkyo-cho, Matsuyama 790-8577, Japan.
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