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Brief report: lateral injection using a whitacre needle with patients in the lateral decubitus position maintained for a prolonged time period produces symmetric sensory block.
MedLine Citation:
PMID:  23002259     Owner:  NLM     Status:  In-Data-Review    
BACKGROUND: The directional flow of injection through a Whitacre needle can be used to modify the level of sensory blockade. We hypothesized that injection of hyperbaric local anesthetic through a Whitacre needle with the bevel oriented laterally can produce a more symmetric sensory block.
METHODS: Patients scheduled for lower limb surgery under spinal anesthesia with the patient in lateral decubitus position were randomized to receive 10 mg, 0.5% hyperbaric bupivacaine with the Whitacre needle orifice in 1 of 2 orientations, cephalad and lateral. The patient's position was maintained for 15 min after the injection, and sensory blocks were recorded. The primary outcome was the sensory levels between the dependent and nondependent side. The Wilcoxon-Mann-Whitney U-test odds was used to compare unpaired nonparametric data. For the paired samples, 95% confidence intervals (CI) of differences between group medians were calculated using the Hodges-Lehman estimator for the median difference in number of blocked segments.
RESULTS: There was no significant difference in block level between dependent and nondependent sides in the lateral group. The Hodges-Lehmann point estimator was 0.5% and 95% CI was 0-2.5, suggesting a more symmetric sensory block in patients in the lateral decubitus position maintained for a sufficient period of time. A significantly lower level of blockade was noticed on the nondependent side compared to the dependent side in the cephalad group. The Hodges-Lehmann point estimator was 2.5 segments and 95% CI was 0.5-5.
CONCLUSIONS: Injection of 10 mg of 0.5% hyperbaric bupivacaine with the bevel of the Whitacre needle oriented laterally produces more symmetric sensory levels of blockade between the dependent and nondependent sides.
Yulong Cui; Junmei Xu; Xinghua Jiang; Ruping Dai; Jiabi Qin; Yanqin Wu; Xinyi Wen; He Li
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Publication Detail:
Type:  Journal Article    
Journal Detail:
Title:  Anesthesia and analgesia     Volume:  115     ISSN:  1526-7598     ISO Abbreviation:  Anesth. Analg.     Publication Date:  2012 Oct 
Date Detail:
Created Date:  2012-09-24     Completed Date:  -     Revised Date:  -    
Medline Journal Info:
Nlm Unique ID:  1310650     Medline TA:  Anesth Analg     Country:  United States    
Other Details:
Languages:  eng     Pagination:  973-6     Citation Subset:  AIM; IM    
Department of Anesthesiology, Wenzhou Third People's Hospital, Wenzhou, Zhejiang, China. Address correspondence to e-mail to
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