Document Detail

Breastfeeding, the use of docosahexaenoic acid-fortified formulas in infancy and neuropsychological function in childhood.
MedLine Citation:
PMID:  20133326     Owner:  NLM     Status:  MEDLINE    
OBJECTIVE: To investigate the relation between breastfeeding, use of docosahexaenoic acid (DHA)-fortified formula and neuropsychological function in children.
DESIGN: Prospective cohort study.
SETTING: Southampton, UK.
SUBJECTS: 241 children aged 4 years followed up from birth.
MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES: IQ measured by the Wechsler Pre-School and Primary Scale of Intelligence (3rd edn), visual attention, visuomotor precision, sentence repetition and verbal fluency measured by the NEPSY, and visual form-constancy measured by the Test of Visual-Perceptual Skills (Non-Motor).
RESULTS: In unadjusted analyses, children for whom breast milk or DHA-fortified formula was the main method of feeding throughout the first 6 months of life had higher mean full-scale and verbal IQ scores at age 4 years than those fed mainly unfortified formula. After adjustment for potential confounding factors, particularly maternal IQ and educational attainment, the differences in IQ between children in the breast milk and unfortified formula groups were severely attenuated, but children who were fed DHA-fortified formula had full-scale and verbal IQ scores that were respectively 5.62 (0.98 to 10.2) and 7.02 (1.56 to 12.4) points higher than children fed unfortified formula. However, estimated total intake of DHA in milk up to age 6 months was not associated with subsequent IQ or with score on any other test.
CONCLUSIONS: Differences in children's intelligence according to type of milk fed in infancy may be due more to confounding by maternal or family characteristics than to the amount of long-chain polyunsaturated fatty acids they receive in milk.
Catharine R Gale; Lynne D Marriott; Christopher N Martyn; Jennifer Limond; Hazel M Inskip; Keith M Godfrey; Catherine M Law; Cyrus Cooper; Carolyn West; Siân M Robinson;
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Publication Detail:
Type:  Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't     Date:  2010-02-04
Journal Detail:
Title:  Archives of disease in childhood     Volume:  95     ISSN:  1468-2044     ISO Abbreviation:  Arch. Dis. Child.     Publication Date:  2010 Mar 
Date Detail:
Created Date:  2010-03-23     Completed Date:  2010-12-22     Revised Date:  2014-02-19    
Medline Journal Info:
Nlm Unique ID:  0372434     Medline TA:  Arch Dis Child     Country:  England    
Other Details:
Languages:  eng     Pagination:  174-9     Citation Subset:  AIM; IM    
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MeSH Terms
Breast Feeding*
Child Development
Confounding Factors (Epidemiology)
Docosahexaenoic Acids / administration & dosage*
Educational Status
Follow-Up Studies
Food, Fortified
Infant Formula / chemistry*
Infant Nutritional Physiological Phenomena
Infant, Newborn
Mothers / statistics & numerical data
Neuropsychological Tests
Prospective Studies
Social Class
Young Adult
Grant Support
MC_UP_A620_1014//Medical Research Council; MC_UP_A620_1015//Medical Research Council; //Medical Research Council
Reg. No./Substance:
25167-62-8/Docosahexaenoic Acids

From MEDLINE®/PubMed®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine

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