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Breast milk and complementary food intake in Brazilian infants according to socio-economic position.
MedLine Citation:
PMID:  20815763     Owner:  NLM     Status:  In-Data-Review    
Abstract/OtherAbstract:
Abstract Objective. (a) To compare breast milk and complementary food intake between breast-fed infants from high and low socio-economic status (SES) aged 8 months of age; (b) To compare these intakes with PAHO/WHO recommendations. Methods. Cross-sectional, community-based study in Pelotas, Brazil. Breast milk and complementary food intake were compared between 8-month-old infants from high (n=35) and low SES (n=30). Breast milk intake was measured using the 'dose-to-the mother' deuterium-oxide turnover method; complementary food intake was assessed using a questionnaire and by 24 hours food weighing. Results. Energy intake from breast milk (51.1±26.4 kcal/kg/d) was not different between social groups, being in line with current recommendations. However, energy intake from complementary foods (34.5±22.7 kcal/kg/d) and from milk, including breast milk, cow's milk and formula (60.1±19.6 kcal/kg/d), were significantly higher than recommendations. Total energy intake was 20% higher than recommended (93.3±24.4 versus 77.3 kcal/kg/day, p<0.001). This was mainly due to a high intake of complementary foods and addition of cow's milk to breast milk. Introduction of complementary foods before 6 months was common. In the high SES group, more infants consumed vegetables (p=0.005) and fruit (p=0.020), whereas fats and sugar tended to be consumed less frequently (p=0.05 and p=0.17, respectively). Conclusions. Feeding habits deviate from PAHO/WHO recommendations, especially for infants of lower SES. Of main concern are the high-energy intake and early introduction of cow's milk and complementary foods. This may be important in view of metabolic programming and the development of obesity and associated diseases later in life.
Authors:
Johanna J C Romulus-Nieuwelink; Colleen Doak; Elaine Albernaz; Cesar G Victora; Hinke Haisma
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Publication Detail:
Type:  Journal Article     Date:  2010-09-06
Journal Detail:
Title:  International journal of pediatric obesity : IJPO : an official journal of the International Association for the Study of Obesity     Volume:  6     ISSN:  1747-7174     ISO Abbreviation:  Int J Pediatr Obes     Publication Date:  2011 Jun 
Date Detail:
Created Date:  2011-07-01     Completed Date:  -     Revised Date:  -    
Medline Journal Info:
Nlm Unique ID:  101256330     Medline TA:  Int J Pediatr Obes     Country:  England    
Other Details:
Languages:  eng     Pagination:  e508-14     Citation Subset:  IM    
Affiliation:
VU University, Amsterdam; Faculty of Earth and Life Sciences , Amsterdam , the Netherlands.
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