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Brain tissue oxygenation-guided management of diabetic ketoacidosis induced cerebral edema.
MedLine Citation:
PMID:  22895005     Owner:  NLM     Status:  Publisher    
OBJECTIVE:: Type 1 diabetes mellitus is the most common chronic disease of childhood. Diabetic ketoacidosis is a well-known complication of diabetes mellitus and can be associated with devastating cerebral edema resulting in severe long-term neurologic disability. Despite the significant morbidity and mortality associated with this condition, relatively few treatments are recommended for these patients. The authors present two patients in which they used both intracranial pressure and brain tissue oxygenation monitoring to manage diabetic ketoacidosis-associated cerebral edema with favorable neurologic outcomes. SETTING:: Pediatric intensive care unit in a tertiary care teaching hospital. INTERVENTIONS:: Two children presented to the emergency room with vague complaints and were found to have diabetic ketoacidosis. During treatment, both patients became comatose with head computed tomography scans revealing diffuse cerebral edema and herniation syndrome. Intracranial pressure and brain tissue oxygenation monitors were placed to guide therapy. RESULTS:: Multiple episodes of brain tissue hypoxia were noted in both patients. Intracranial pressure control with intubation, sedation, and hyperosmolar therapy improved episodes of decreased brain tissue oxygenation associated with intracranial hypertension. Brain tissue oxygenation was also noted to be significantly less than the target value on several occasions even when intracranial pressure was controlled and an age-appropriate cerebral perfusion pressure goal was met. Augmentation of cerebral perfusion pressure above age-appropriate goal with fluid boluses and inotropic agents increased brain tissue oxygenation in these instances. Both children had very low Glasgow Coma Scale scores at admission, but ultimately had favorable neurologic outcomes. CONCLUSIONS:: Multimodal neuromonitoring of both intracranial pressure and brain tissue oxygenation during episodes of clinically apparent diabetic ketoacidosis-associated cerebral edema allows for the detection and treatment of episodes of elevated intracranial pressure and/or brain tissue hypoxia that may be of clinical significance.
Nicole F O'Brien; Cesar Mella
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Publication Detail:
Type:  JOURNAL ARTICLE     Date:  2012-8-14
Journal Detail:
Title:  Pediatric critical care medicine : a journal of the Society of Critical Care Medicine and the World Federation of Pediatric Intensive and Critical Care Societies     Volume:  -     ISSN:  1529-7535     ISO Abbreviation:  Pediatr Crit Care Med     Publication Date:  2012 Aug 
Date Detail:
Created Date:  2012-8-16     Completed Date:  -     Revised Date:  -    
Medline Journal Info:
Nlm Unique ID:  100954653     Medline TA:  Pediatr Crit Care Med     Country:  -    
Other Details:
Languages:  ENG     Pagination:  -     Citation Subset:  -    
From the Department of Pediatrics (NFOB, CM), Section of Critical Care Medicine, Nationwide Children's Hospital, The Ohio State University College of Medicine, Columbus, OH; and Department of Pediatrics (CM), The Research Institute at Nationwide Children's Hospital, Columbus, OH.
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