Document Detail

Brain damage, sex hormones and recovery: a new role for progesterone and estrogen?
MedLine Citation:
PMID:  11410269     Owner:  NLM     Status:  MEDLINE    
Estrogen and progesterone, long considered for their roles as primary hormones in reproductive and maternal behavior, are now being studied as neuroprotective and neuroregenerative agents in stroke and traumatic brain injuries. Collectively, the hormones reduce the consequences of the injury cascade by enhancing anti-oxidant mechanisms, reducing excitotoxicity (altering glutamate receptor activity, reducing immune inflammation, providing neurotrophic support, stimulating axonal remyelinization), and enhancing synaptogenesis and dendritic arborization. Estrogen seems more effective as a prophylactic treatment in females at risk for cardiac and ischemic brain injury, whereas progesterone appears to be more helpful in the post-injury treatment of both male and female subjects with acute traumatic brain damage. However, a recent clinical trial with estradiol replacement therapy in elderly women that have a history of cerebrovascular disease, showed that this hormone was unable to protect against reoccurrence of ischemia or to reduce the incidence of mortality compared to a placebo.
D G Stein
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Publication Detail:
Type:  Journal Article; Review    
Journal Detail:
Title:  Trends in neurosciences     Volume:  24     ISSN:  0166-2236     ISO Abbreviation:  Trends Neurosci.     Publication Date:  2001 Jul 
Date Detail:
Created Date:  2001-06-18     Completed Date:  2001-09-06     Revised Date:  2004-11-17    
Medline Journal Info:
Nlm Unique ID:  7808616     Medline TA:  Trends Neurosci     Country:  England    
Other Details:
Languages:  eng     Pagination:  386-91     Citation Subset:  IM    
Emory University, Depts of Psychology, Emergency Medicine and Neurology, 30322, Atlanta, GA, USA.
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MeSH Terms
Brain Edema / drug therapy*,  etiology
Brain Injuries / complications,  drug therapy*
Estrogens / pharmacology,  therapeutic use*
Gonadal Steroid Hormones / pharmacology,  therapeutic use
Memory / drug effects,  physiology
Neuroglia / drug effects,  metabolism
Neurons / drug effects,  metabolism
Progesterone / pharmacology,  therapeutic use*
Recovery of Function / drug effects,  physiology
Sex Factors
Reg. No./Substance:
0/Estrogens; 0/Gonadal Steroid Hormones; 57-83-0/Progesterone

From MEDLINE®/PubMed®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine

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