Document Detail

Boundary conditions for heat transfer and evaporative cooling in the trachea and air sac system of the domestic fowl: a two-dimensional CFD analysis.
MedLine Citation:
PMID:  23028927     Owner:  NLM     Status:  MEDLINE    
Various parts of the respiratory system play an important role in temperature control in birds. We create a simplified computational fluid dynamics (CFD) model of heat exchange in the trachea and air sacs of the domestic fowl (Gallus domesticus) in order to investigate the boundary conditions for the convective and evaporative cooling in these parts of the respiratory system. The model is based upon published values for respiratory times, pressures and volumes and upon anatomical data for this species, and the calculated heat exchange is compared with experimentally determined values for the domestic fowl and a closely related, wild species. In addition, we studied the trachea histologically to estimate the thickness of the heat transfer barrier and determine the structure and function of moisture-producing glands. In the transient CFD simulation, the airflow in the trachea of a 2-dimensional model is evoked by changing the volume of the simplified air sac. The heat exchange between the respiratory system and the environment is simulated for different ambient temperatures and humidities, and using two different models of evaporation: constant water vapour concentration model and the droplet injection model. According to the histological results, small mucous glands are numerous but discrete serous glands are lacking on the tracheal surface. The amount of water and heat loss in the simulation is comparable with measured respiratory values previously reported. Tracheal temperature control in the avian respiratory system may be used as a model for extinct or rare animals and could have high relevance for explaining how gigantic, long-necked dinosaurs such as sauropoda might have maintained a high metabolic rate.
Nina S Sverdlova; Markus Lambertz; Ulrich Witzel; Steven F Perry
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Publication Detail:
Type:  Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't     Date:  2012-09-20
Journal Detail:
Title:  PloS one     Volume:  7     ISSN:  1932-6203     ISO Abbreviation:  PLoS ONE     Publication Date:  2012  
Date Detail:
Created Date:  2012-10-02     Completed Date:  2013-02-25     Revised Date:  2013-07-11    
Medline Journal Info:
Nlm Unique ID:  101285081     Medline TA:  PLoS One     Country:  United States    
Other Details:
Languages:  eng     Pagination:  e45315     Citation Subset:  IM    
Institute for Product and Service Engineering, Ruhr-Universität Bochum, Bochum, Germany.
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MeSH Terms
Air Sacs / anatomy & histology,  physiology*
Body Temperature Regulation / physiology*
Poultry / physiology*
Trachea / anatomy & histology,  physiology*

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