Document Detail

Botulinum toxin in facial rejuvenation: an update.
MedLine Citation:
PMID:  21093750     Owner:  NLM     Status:  In-Process    
Since its initial approval by the US Food and Drug Administration (FDA) 20 years ago for the treatment of strabismus, hemifacial spasm, and blepharospasm in adults, botulinum toxin (BTX) has become one of the most frequently requested products in cosmetic rejuvenation around the world. After years of clinical success and consistent safety in the upper face, the use of BTX has expanded and evolved to include increasingly complicated indications. In the hands of adept injectors, the focus has shifted from the treatment of individual dynamic rhytides to shaping, contouring, and sculpting, alone or in combination with other cosmetic procedures, to enhance the aesthetic appearance of the face. Although recent reports have questioned the safety of BTX, 25 years of therapeutic and over 20 years of cosmetic use has demonstrated an impressive record of safety and efficacy when used appropriately by experienced injectors.
Jean Carruthers; Alastair Carruthers
Publication Detail:
Type:  Journal Article    
Journal Detail:
Title:  Obstetrics and gynecology clinics of North America     Volume:  37     ISSN:  1558-0474     ISO Abbreviation:  Obstet. Gynecol. Clin. North Am.     Publication Date:  2010 Dec 
Date Detail:
Created Date:  2010-11-24     Completed Date:  -     Revised Date:  -    
Medline Journal Info:
Nlm Unique ID:  8709551     Medline TA:  Obstet Gynecol Clin North Am     Country:  United States    
Other Details:
Languages:  eng     Pagination:  571-82, ix     Citation Subset:  -    
Copyright Information:
Copyright © 2010 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Department of Ophthalmology and Visual Sciences, University of British Columbia, 943 West Broadway, Suite 740, Vancouver, BC, Canada V5Z 4E1.
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Republished from:
Dermatol Clin. 2009 Oct;27(4):417-25, v   [PMID:  19850191 ]

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