Document Detail

Bolus dynamics: theoretical and experimental aspects.
MedLine Citation:
PMID:  9166070     Owner:  NLM     Status:  MEDLINE    
This paper analyses the arterial enhancement produced by short intravenous boluses of iodinated contrast medium, with particular attention to the differences between various types of contrast media. A theoretical discussion is presented, followed by a small experimental study. The characteristics of the arterial time-attenuation curve are a function of the rate of contrast medium transit to the extracellular fluid (ECF), osmolality driven transit of water from the ECF into the plasma, direct effects on the heart and pulmonary circulation, the distribution of transit times in the cardiopulmonary circulation and recirculation. Theory predicts that while differences in peak arterial attenuation/peak height (PH) will be small, alterations in the areas under the time-attenuation curve (AUC) will reflect early-phase rate constants in the absence of major inotropic effects. The AUC should be higher for non-ionic than ionic media reflecting these lower rate constants. An experimental study on three healthy dogs confirmed these theoretical observations, with a slightly higher PH (6.5% higher) using a non-ionic medium but a substantially higher AUC (22% higher). (Differences significant at the 5% level, two-tailed paired t-test.) Our theoretical predictions and experimental findings suggest non-ionic media produce superior vascular enhancement, particularly shortly after injection. Possible clinical implications, particularly in dynamic enhanced computed tomography, are discussed.
M J Blomley; P Dawson
Publication Detail:
Type:  Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't    
Journal Detail:
Title:  The British journal of radiology     Volume:  70     ISSN:  0007-1285     ISO Abbreviation:  Br J Radiol     Publication Date:  1997 Apr 
Date Detail:
Created Date:  1997-06-11     Completed Date:  1997-06-11     Revised Date:  2006-11-15    
Medline Journal Info:
Nlm Unique ID:  0373125     Medline TA:  Br J Radiol     Country:  ENGLAND    
Other Details:
Languages:  eng     Pagination:  351-9     Citation Subset:  AIM; IM    
Department of Radiology, University of Chicago Hospitals, Illinois, USA.
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MeSH Terms
Angiography, Digital Subtraction
Aorta, Abdominal / radiography
Contrast Media / metabolism*
Diatrizoate / blood,  diagnostic use
Drug Administration Schedule
Injections, Intravenous
Iohexol / diagnostic use,  metabolism
Models, Biological*
Tomography, X-Ray Computed
Reg. No./Substance:
0/Contrast Media; 117-96-4/Diatrizoate; 66108-95-0/Iohexol

From MEDLINE®/PubMed®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine

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