Document Detail

Blood vessel remodeling and physical inactivity in humans.
MedLine Citation:
PMID:  21737819     Owner:  NLM     Status:  MEDLINE    
Physical inactivity is associated with an increase in cardiovascular risk that cannot be fully explained by traditional or novel risk factors. Inactivity is also associated with changes in hemodynamic stimuli, which exert direct effects on the vasculature leading to remodeling and a proatherogenic phenotype. In this review, we synthesize and summarize in vivo evidence relating to the impact of local and systemic models of physical inactivity on conduit arteries, resistance vessels, and the microcirculation in humans. Taken together, the literature suggests that a rapid inward structural remodeling of vessels occurs in response to physical inactivity. The magnitude of this response is dependent on the "dose" of inactivity. Moreover, changes in vascular function are found at resistance and microvessel levels in humans. In conduit arteries, a strong interaction between vascular function and structure is present, which results in conflicting data regarding the impact of inactivity on conduit artery function. While much of the cardioprotective effect of exercise is related to the nitric oxide pathway, deconditioning may primarily be associated with activation of vasoconstrictor pathways. The effects of deconditioning on the vasculature are therefore not simply the opposite of those in response to exercise training. Given the importance of sedentary behavior, future studies should provide further insight into the impact of inactivity on the vasculature and other (novel) markers of vascular health. Moreover, studies should examine the role of (hemodynamic) stimuli that underlie the characteristic vascular adaptations during deconditioning. Our review concludes with some suggestions for future research directions.
Dick H J Thijssen; Daniel J Green; Maria T E Hopman
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Publication Detail:
Type:  Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't; Review     Date:  2011-07-07
Journal Detail:
Title:  Journal of applied physiology (Bethesda, Md. : 1985)     Volume:  111     ISSN:  1522-1601     ISO Abbreviation:  J. Appl. Physiol.     Publication Date:  2011 Dec 
Date Detail:
Created Date:  2011-12-14     Completed Date:  2012-04-30     Revised Date:  2013-09-26    
Medline Journal Info:
Nlm Unique ID:  8502536     Medline TA:  J Appl Physiol (1985)     Country:  United States    
Other Details:
Languages:  eng     Pagination:  1836-45     Citation Subset:  IM    
Research Institute for Sport and Exercise Science, Liverpool John Moores University, Liverpool, United Kingdom.
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MeSH Terms
Adaptation, Physiological
Blood Vessels / pathology*,  physiopathology*
Cardiovascular Diseases / etiology,  pathology,  physiopathology
Microvessels / pathology,  physiopathology
Motor Activity / physiology
Risk Factors
Sedentary Lifestyle*
Time Factors
Vascular Resistance / physiology

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