Document Detail

Blood glutathione status and activity of glutathione-metabolizing antioxidant enzymes in erythrocytes of young trotters in basic training.
MedLine Citation:
PMID:  19364380     Owner:  NLM     Status:  MEDLINE    
The aim of this study was to evaluate response of blood glutathione status and activity of glutathione-metabolizing antioxidant enzymes in erythrocytes of young trotters in basic training. Nine untrained trotters (aged 16-20 months) were exposed to a 4-month training program based on exercises at low-to-moderate intensity. The conditioning consisted of breaking the horses and running them on distances varying from 4 to 40 km a week. The workloads were increased on a 3-week basis. Exercise intensity was monitored by measuring heart rate and blood lactate. Blood samples were collected at rest, before (RES0) and after (RESt) the conditioning period; moreover, on the latter occasion (on day 112 of training), the blood was also taken immediately after the routine exercise (EXE0) and 60 min thereafter (EXE60). The whole blood samples were analysed for the concentration of reduced, oxidized and total glutathione (GSH, GSSG and TGSH, respectively), while the activities of glutathione peroxidase (GPX) and glutathione-disulfide reductase (GR) were determined in haemolysates. Additionally, the erythrocytic concentrations of oxidized nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide (NAD(+)) and its phosphate (NADP(+)) were measured. All investigated parameters except NAD(+) and reduced/oxidized glutathione ratio (GSH/GSSG) changed during the training period. Following the effortm GPX, NADP(+) and GSH/GSSG were significantly lower (p < 0.05, p < 0.01, p < 0.001, respectively) while GSSG was markedly higher than at rest (RESt). The drop in NADP(+), low GSH/GSSG and high GSSG concentration were sustained at EXE60. Glutathione-disulfide reductase activity was higher after the workout but only at EXE60 the increase in activity was significant. Despite the activities of the GSH-GSSG cycle, enzymes were considerably higher after the training period, the elevated concentration of GSSG and significantly lower GSH/GSSG ratio in the post-exercise measurements suggest that production of reactive oxygen species possibly exceeds the capacity of antioxidative defenses of immature trotters. A more balanced diet with additional antioxidant supplementation and a revision of the basic training protocol used herein are advised.
M Janiak; M Suska; W Dudzińska; E Skotnicka
Publication Detail:
Type:  Journal Article     Date:  2009-03-31
Journal Detail:
Title:  Journal of animal physiology and animal nutrition     Volume:  94     ISSN:  1439-0396     ISO Abbreviation:  J Anim Physiol Anim Nutr (Berl)     Publication Date:  2010 Apr 
Date Detail:
Created Date:  2010-05-14     Completed Date:  2010-08-30     Revised Date:  -    
Medline Journal Info:
Nlm Unique ID:  101126979     Medline TA:  J Anim Physiol Anim Nutr (Berl)     Country:  Germany    
Other Details:
Languages:  eng     Pagination:  137-45     Citation Subset:  IM    
Department of Physiology, Faculty of Natural Sciences, University of Szczecin, Szczecin, Poland.
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MeSH Terms
Antioxidants / metabolism*
Erythrocytes / enzymology*
Glutathione / blood*
Glutathione Disulfide / blood
Glutathione Peroxidase / blood,  metabolism
Glutathione Reductase / blood,  metabolism
Horses / blood*,  physiology*
Physical Conditioning, Animal / physiology*
Reg. No./Substance:
0/Antioxidants; 27025-41-8/Glutathione Disulfide; 70-18-8/Glutathione; EC Peroxidase; EC Reductase

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