Document Detail

Biotin and biotinidase deficiency.
MedLine Citation:
PMID:  19727438     Owner:  NLM     Status:  Publisher    
Biotin is a water-soluble vitamin that serves as an essential coenzyme for five carboxylases in mammals. Biotin-dependent carboxylases catalyze the fixation of bicarbonate in organic acids and play crucial roles in the metabolism of fatty acids, amino acids and glucose. Carboxylase activities decrease substantially in response to biotin deficiency. Biotin is also covalently attached to histones; biotinylated histones are enriched in repeat regions in the human genome and appear to play a role in transcriptional repression of genes and genome stability. Biotin deficiency may be caused by insufficient dietary uptake of biotin, drug-vitamin interactions and, perhaps, by increased biotin catabolism during pregnancy and in smokers. Biotin deficiency can also be precipitated by decreased activities of the following proteins that play critical roles in biotin homeostasis: the vitamin transporters sodium-dependent multivitamin transporter and monocarboxylate transporter 1, which mediate biotin transport in the intestine, liver and peripheral tissues, and renal reabsorption; holocarboxylase synthetase, which mediates the binding of biotin to carboxylases and histones; and biotinidase, which plays a central role in the intestinal absorption of biotin, the transport of biotin in plasma and the regulation of histone biotinylation. Symptoms of biotin deficiency include seizures, hypotonia, ataxia, dermatitis, hair loss, mental retardation, ketolactic acidosis, organic aciduria and also fetal malformations. This review focuses on the deficiencies of both biotin and biotinidase, and the medical management of such cases.
Janos Zempleni; Yousef I Hassan; Subhashinee Sk Wijeratne
Related Documents :
7471748 - The fatty acid pattern of serum triglycerides and ffa in patients with essential hypert...
16627888 - Relationship between umbilical cord essential fatty acid content and the quality of gen...
3368528 - Evidence against a dependence of the senna effect on prostaglandin formation.
7127918 - Effects of low-zinc status and essential fatty acid deficiency on growth and lipid comp...
15832508 - A novel nucleoside prodrug-activating enzyme: substrate specificity of biphenyl hydrola...
8760348 - Uncoupling effect of polyunsaturated fatty acid deficiency in isolated rat hepatocytes:...
Publication Detail:
Journal Detail:
Title:  Expert review of endocrinology & metabolism     Volume:  3     ISSN:  -     ISO Abbreviation:  -     Publication Date:  2008 Nov 
Date Detail:
Created Date:  2009-9-3     Completed Date:  -     Revised Date:  -    
Medline Journal Info:
Nlm Unique ID:  101278293     Medline TA:  Expert Rev Endocrinol Metab     Country:  -    
Other Details:
Languages:  ENG     Pagination:  715-724     Citation Subset:  -    
Department of Nutrition and Health Sciences, University of Nebraska-Lincoln, Lincoln, NE 68586, USA, Tel.: +1 402 472 3270, ,
Export Citation:
APA/MLA Format     Download EndNote     Download BibTex
MeSH Terms
Grant Support
R01 DK063945-05A1//NIDDK NIH HHS; R01 DK077816-01A2//NIDDK NIH HHS; R21 ES015206-02//NIEHS NIH HHS

From MEDLINE®/PubMed®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine

Previous Document:  Discovery of novel genetic networks associated with 19 economically important traits in beef cattle.
Next Document:  The effects of an acute psychosocial stressor on episodic memory.