Document Detail

Biosynthesis and catabolism of caffeine in low-caffeine-containing species of Coffea.
MedLine Citation:
PMID:  10552667     Owner:  NLM     Status:  MEDLINE    
Leaves of Coffea salvatrix, Coffea eugenioides, and C. bengalensis contain approximately 3-7-fold lower levels of caffeine than those of Coffea arabica. There was more extensive biosynthesis of caffeine from [8-(14)C]adenine in young leaves of C. arabica than in C. salvatrix, C. eugenioides, and C. bengalensis. Degradation of [8-(14)C]caffeine, which is negligible in leaves of C. arabica, was also very slow in C.salvatrix and C. bengalensis. In contrast, [8-(14)C]caffeine was catabolized rapidly by young and mature leaves of C. eugenioides primarily by a caffeine --> theophylline --> 3-methylxanthine --> xanthine --> uric acid --> allantoin --> allantoic acid --> urea --> CO(2) + NH(3) pathway. These results indicate that the low caffeine accumulation in C. salvatrix, C. eugenioides, and C. bengalensis is a consequence of a slow rate of caffeine biosynthesis, whereas rapid degradation of caffeine also contributes to the low endogenous caffeine pool in C. eugenioides. The genes that regulate caffeine accumulation appear to be those encoding N-methyltransferase and caffeine (7-N) demethylase activities. The diversity of caffeine catabolism observed in C. arabica, C. salvatrix, C. eugenioides, and C. bengalensis, other species of Coffea, and Camellia sinensis is discussed.
H Ashihara; A Crozier
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Publication Detail:
Type:  Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't    
Journal Detail:
Title:  Journal of agricultural and food chemistry     Volume:  47     ISSN:  0021-8561     ISO Abbreviation:  J. Agric. Food Chem.     Publication Date:  1999 Aug 
Date Detail:
Created Date:  2000-09-12     Completed Date:  2000-09-12     Revised Date:  2007-11-15    
Medline Journal Info:
Nlm Unique ID:  0374755     Medline TA:  J Agric Food Chem     Country:  UNITED STATES    
Other Details:
Languages:  eng     Pagination:  3425-31     Citation Subset:  IM    
Department of Biology, Faculty of Science, Ochanomizu University, Tokyo, Japan.
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MeSH Terms
Adenine / metabolism
Caffeine / biosynthesis,  isolation & purification,  metabolism*
Carbon Radioisotopes
Chromatography, High Pressure Liquid
Chromatography, Thin Layer
Coffee / classification,  metabolism*
Plant Leaves
Species Specificity
Reg. No./Substance:
0/Carbon Radioisotopes; 0/Coffee; 58-08-2/Caffeine; 73-24-5/Adenine

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