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Biomedicine in the environment: Sorption of the cyclotide kalata B2 to montmorillonite, goethite, and humic acid.
MedLine Citation:
PMID:  21590795     Owner:  NLM     Status:  Publisher    
Cyclotides are bioactive, stable mini-proteins produced in high amounts in Violaceae and Rubiaceae with promising pharmaceutical and agrochemical applications. Environmental issues must be addressed before large-scale plant cultivation of cyclotides for pharmaceutical or pesticidal purposes can commence. The objective of the present study was to investigate sorption of the cyclotide kalata B2 (kB2), as knowledge about cyclotide biogeochemistry will help to understand the environmental fate. The octanol-water partitioning coefficient was determined to be 2.8 ± 0.6 (log K(OW)  = 0.4 ± 0.1). Sorption of kB2 by montmorillonite, goethite and humic acid was investigated at different concentrations and under varying acidity and reached equilibrium within minutes. The kB2 sorption at a solution concentration of 0.2 mg/L to montmorillonite was high (120 mg/g) compared to humic acid (0.60 mg/g) and goethite (0.03 mg/g). Kalata B2 intercalated the interlayer space of montmorillonite. The sorption isotherm for humic acid was linear up to a solution concentration of 0.8 mg/L and concave for montmorillonite and goethite up to an equilibrium solution concentration of 1.5 mg/L. Sorption to goethite was unaffected by pH, but sorption to montmorillonite and humic acid at pH near the isoelectric point (pI) was three-fold the sorption when pH > pI, suggesting that electrostatic interaction/repulsion between kB2 and sorbents play an important role. The strong sorption to montmorillonite reduces the exposure to below toxic threshold values. In addition, the transport risk of soluble cyclotides is reduced, but particle-bound cyclotides may be transported to recipient aquatic sediments with the associated risk of adversely affecting sediment-dwelling organisms. Environ. Toxicol. Chem. © 2011 SETAC.
Rikke Gleerup Ovesen; John Nielsen; Hans Christian Bruun Hansen
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Publication Detail:
Type:  JOURNAL ARTICLE     Date:  2011-5-17
Journal Detail:
Title:  Environmental toxicology and chemistry / SETAC     Volume:  -     ISSN:  1552-8618     ISO Abbreviation:  -     Publication Date:  2011 May 
Date Detail:
Created Date:  2011-5-18     Completed Date:  -     Revised Date:  -    
Medline Journal Info:
Nlm Unique ID:  8308958     Medline TA:  Environ Toxicol Chem     Country:  -    
Other Details:
Languages:  ENG     Pagination:  -     Citation Subset:  -    
Copyright Information:
Copyright © 2011 SETAC.
University of Copenhagen, Department of Basic Sciences and Environment, Frederiksberg C, Denmark.
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