Document Detail


Biomarkers of teratogenesis: suggestions from animal studies.
MedLine Citation:
PMID:  22610102     Owner:  NLM     Status:  Publisher    
Abstract/OtherAbstract:
Biomarkers of effect are measurable biochemical, physiological or other alterations within an organism that can be recognized as causing an established or potential impairment of embryo-fetal development. They may be identified studying the mechanisms of action of teratogens. Hyperacetylation of histones, oxidative stress, cholesterol and retinoic acid unbalance are some of the identified mechanisms of action of some known teratogens. Nevertheless, their use is not currently applicable in human pregnancy because of the difficulty of the choice of biological material, the time when the material must be obtained, and the invasivity of methods. Furthermore, before using them in human pregnancy studies, biomarkers should be validated in experimental animals and in epidemiologic studies. On the contrary, some biomarkers could be useful in the screening of developmental toxicity of chemicals and drugs, comparing molecules of the same chemical class or with the similar pharmacologic activity, and using adequate in vitro tests, in order to reduce the use of experimental animals.
Authors:
Erminio Giavini; Elena Menegola
Publication Detail:
Type:  JOURNAL ARTICLE     Date:  2012-5-17
Journal Detail:
Title:  Reproductive toxicology (Elmsford, N.Y.)     Volume:  -     ISSN:  1873-1708     ISO Abbreviation:  -     Publication Date:  2012 May 
Date Detail:
Created Date:  2012-5-21     Completed Date:  -     Revised Date:  -    
Medline Journal Info:
Nlm Unique ID:  8803591     Medline TA:  Reprod Toxicol     Country:  -    
Other Details:
Languages:  ENG     Pagination:  -     Citation Subset:  -    
Copyright Information:
Copyright © 2012. Published by Elsevier Inc.
Affiliation:
Università di Milano, Department of Biology.
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