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Biomarkers of human exposure to pesticides.
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MedLine Citation:
PMID:  9255564     Owner:  NLM     Status:  MEDLINE    
For centuries, several hundred pesticides have been used to control insects. These pesticides differ greatly in their mode of action, uptake by the body, metabolism, elimination from the body, and toxicity to humans. Potential exposure from the environment can be estimated by environmental monitoring. Actual exposure (uptake) is measured by the biological monitoring of human tissues and body fluids. Biomarkers are used to detect the effects of pesticides before adverse clinical health effects occur. Pesticides and their metabolites are measured in biological samples, serum, fat, urine, blood, or breast milk by the usual analytical techniques. Biochemical responses to environmental chemicals provide a measure of toxic effect. A widely used biochemical biomarker, cholinesterase depression, measures exposure to organophosphorus insecticides. Techniques that measure DNA damage (e.g., detection of DNA adducts) provide a powerful tool in measuring environmental effects. Adducts to hemoglobin have been detected with several pesticides. Determination of chromosomal aberration rates in cultured lymphocytes is an established method of monitoring populations occupationally or environmentally exposed to known or suspected mutagenic-carcinogenic agents. There are several studies on the cytogenetic effects of work with pesticide formulations. The majority of these studies report increases in the frequency of chromosomal aberrations and/or sister chromatid exchanges among the exposed workers. Biomarkers will have a major impact on the study of environmental risk factors. The basic aim of scientists exploring these issues is to determine the nature and consequences of genetic change or variation, with the ultimate purpose of predicting or preventing disease.
W A Anwar
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Publication Detail:
Type:  Journal Article; Review    
Journal Detail:
Title:  Environmental health perspectives     Volume:  105 Suppl 4     ISSN:  0091-6765     ISO Abbreviation:  Environ. Health Perspect.     Publication Date:  1997 Jun 
Date Detail:
Created Date:  1997-09-11     Completed Date:  1997-09-11     Revised Date:  2009-11-18    
Medline Journal Info:
Nlm Unique ID:  0330411     Medline TA:  Environ Health Perspect     Country:  UNITED STATES    
Other Details:
Languages:  eng     Pagination:  801-6     Citation Subset:  IM    
Department of Community, Environmental and Occupational Medicine, Faculty of Medicine, Ain Shams University, Cairo, Egypt.
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MeSH Terms
Biological Markers
Environmental Monitoring*
Pesticides / toxicity*
Risk Assessment
Reg. No./Substance:
0/Biological Markers; 0/Pesticides

From MEDLINE®/PubMed®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine

Full Text
Journal Information
Journal ID (nlm-ta): Environ Health Perspect
ISSN: 0091-6765
Article Information
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Print publication date: Month: 6 Year: 1997
Volume: 105 Issue: Suppl 4
First Page: 801 Last Page: 806
ID: 1470029
PubMed Id: 9255564

Biomarkers of human exposure to pesticides.
W A Anwar
Department of Community, Environmental and Occupational Medicine, Faculty of Medicine, Ain Shams University, Cairo, Egypt.

Article Categories:
  • Research Article

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