Document Detail

Biological and chemical analysis of the toxic potency of pesticides in rainwater.
MedLine Citation:
PMID:  11680757     Owner:  NLM     Status:  MEDLINE    
A newly developed method for measuring the integrated esterase inhibiting potency of rainwater samples was applied in practice, and the results are compared to the toxic potency calculated from concentrations of 31 organophosphate (OP) and carbamate pesticides, out of a total of 66 chemically analyzed pesticides. In addition, the general toxic potency of the rainwater samples was evaluated in a microtiter luminescence assay with Vibrio fischeri bacteria. Rainwater samples were collected over four consecutive 14-day periods in both open and wet-only samplers. The esterase inhibiting potency of the open rainwater samples (expressed as ng dichlorvos-equivalents/l) corresponded well with the chemical analyses of the rainwater samples collected by both types of samplers (r = 0.83-0.86). By far, the highest esterase inhibiting potency was found in a sample collected in an area with intense horticultural activities in June, and was attributed to high concentrations of dichlorvos, mevinphos, pirimiphos-methyl and methiocarb. The esterase inhibiting potency of this sample was equivalent to a dichlorvos concentration of 1380 ng/l in the rainwater, which is almost 2000 times higher than the maximum permissible concentration (MPC) of dichlorvos set for surface water in Netherlands. Maximum individual concentrations of dichlorvos and pirimiphos-methyl even exceeded the EC50 for Daphnia, suggesting that pesticides in rainwater pose a risk for aquatic organisms. Not all responses of the luminescence-assay for general toxicity could be explained by the analyzed pesticide concentrations. The bio-assays enable a direct assessment the toxic potency of all individual compounds present in the complex mixture of rainwater pollutants, even if they are unknown or present at concentrations below the detection limit. Therefore, they are valuable tools for prescreening and hazard characterization purposes.
T Hamers; M G Smit; A J Murk; J H Koeman
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Publication Detail:
Type:  Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't    
Journal Detail:
Title:  Chemosphere     Volume:  45     ISSN:  0045-6535     ISO Abbreviation:  Chemosphere     Publication Date:  2001 Nov 
Date Detail:
Created Date:  2001-10-26     Completed Date:  2002-02-28     Revised Date:  2006-11-15    
Medline Journal Info:
Nlm Unique ID:  0320657     Medline TA:  Chemosphere     Country:  England    
Other Details:
Languages:  eng     Pagination:  609-24     Citation Subset:  IM    
Toxicology Group, Wageningen University, The Netherlands.
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MeSH Terms
Environmental Exposure*
Insecticides / toxicity*
Lethal Dose 50
Luminescent Measurements
Organothiophosphorus Compounds*
Risk Assessment
Water Pollutants, Chemical / toxicity*
Reg. No./Substance:
0/Carbamates; 0/Insecticides; 0/Organothiophosphorus Compounds; 0/Water Pollutants, Chemical

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