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On the Biological Importance of the 3-hydroxyanthranilic Acid: Anthranilic Acid Ratio.
MedLine Citation:
PMID:  22084587     Owner:  NLM     Status:  PubMed-not-MEDLINE    
Of the major components of the kynurenine pathway for the oxidative metabolism of tryptophan, most attention has focussed on the N-methyl-D-aspartate (NMDA) receptor agonist quinolinic acid, and the glutamate receptor blocker kynurenic acid. However, there is increasing evidence that the redox-active compound 3-hydroxyanthranilic acid may also have potent actions on cell function in the nervous and immune systems, and recent clinical data show marked changes in the levels of this compound, associated with changes in anthranilic acid levels, in patients with a range of neurological and other disorders including osteoporosis, chronic brain injury, Huntington's disease, coronary heart disease, thoracic disease, stroke and depression. In most cases, there is a decrease in 3-hydroxyanthranilic acid levels and an increase in anthranilic acid levels. In this paper, we summarise the range of data obtained to date, and hypothesise that the levels of 3-hydroxyanthranilic acid or the ratio of 3-hydroxyanthranilic acid to anthranilic acid levels, may contribute to disorders with an inflammatory component, and may represent a novel marker for the assessment of inflammation and its progression. Data are presented which suggest that the ratio between these two compounds is not a simple determinant of neuronal viability. Finally, a hypothesis is presented to account for the development of the observed changes in 3-hydroxyanthranilic acid and anthranilate levels in inflammation and it is suggested that the change of the 3HAA:AA ratio, particularly in the brain, could possibly be a protective response to limit primary and secondary damage.
L Gail Darlington; Caroline M Forrest; Gillian M Mackay; Robert A Smith; Andrew J Smith; Nicholas Stoy; Trevor W Stone
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Publication Detail:
Type:  Journal Article     Date:  2010-06-10
Journal Detail:
Title:  International journal of tryptophan research : IJTR     Volume:  3     ISSN:  1178-6469     ISO Abbreviation:  Int J Tryptophan Res     Publication Date:  2010  
Date Detail:
Created Date:  2011-11-15     Completed Date:  2011-11-23     Revised Date:  2013-05-29    
Medline Journal Info:
Nlm Unique ID:  101513378     Medline TA:  Int J Tryptophan Res     Country:  New Zealand    
Other Details:
Languages:  eng     Pagination:  51-9     Citation Subset:  -    
Epsom General Hospital, Dorking Road, Epsom, Surrey KT18 7EG, UK.
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