Document Detail

Bilingualism enriches the poor: enhanced cognitive control in low-income minority children.
MedLine Citation:
PMID:  23044796     Owner:  NLM     Status:  MEDLINE    
This study explores whether the cognitive advantage associated with bilingualism in executive functioning extends to young immigrant children challenged by poverty and, if it does, which specific processes are most affected. In the study reported here, 40 Portuguese-Luxembourgish bilingual children from low-income immigrant families in Luxembourg and 40 matched monolingual children from Portugal completed visuospatial tests of working memory, abstract reasoning, selective attention, and interference suppression. Two broad cognitive factors of executive functioning-representation (abstract reasoning and working memory) and control (selective attention and interference suppression)-emerged from principal component analysis. Whereas there were no group differences in representation, the bilinguals performed significantly better than did the monolinguals in control. These results demonstrate, first, that the bilingual advantage is neither confounded with nor limited by socioeconomic and cultural factors and, second, that separable aspects of executive functioning are differentially affected by bilingualism. The bilingual advantage lies in control but not in visuospatial representational processes.
Pascale M J Engel de Abreu; Anabela Cruz-Santos; Carlos J Tourinho; Romain Martin; Ellen Bialystok
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Publication Detail:
Type:  Journal Article; Research Support, N.I.H., Extramural; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't     Date:  2012-10-08
Journal Detail:
Title:  Psychological science     Volume:  23     ISSN:  1467-9280     ISO Abbreviation:  Psychol Sci     Publication Date:  2012  
Date Detail:
Created Date:  2012-11-15     Completed Date:  2013-11-14     Revised Date:  2014-06-27    
Medline Journal Info:
Nlm Unique ID:  9007542     Medline TA:  Psychol Sci     Country:  United States    
Other Details:
Languages:  eng     Pagination:  1364-71     Citation Subset:  IM    
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MeSH Terms
Emigrants and Immigrants / psychology*
Executive Function*
Grant Support

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