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Bile acids in the colon, from healthy to cytotoxic molecules.
MedLine Citation:
PMID:  23274766     Owner:  NLM     Status:  Publisher    
Abstract/OtherAbstract:
Bile acids are natural detergents mainly involved in facilitating the absorption of dietary fat in the intestine. In addition to this absorptive function, bile acids are also essential in the maintenance of the intestinal epithelium homeostasis. To accomplish this regulatory function, bile acids may induce programmed cell death fostering the renewal of the epithelium. Here we first discuss on the different molecular pathways of cell death focusing on apoptosis in colon epithelial cells. Bile acids may induce apoptosis in colonocytes through different mechanisms. In contrast to hepatocytes, the extrinsic apoptotic pathway seems to have a low relevance regarding bile acid cytotoxicity in the colon. On the contrary, these molecules mainly trigger apoptosis through direct or indirect mitochondrial perturbations, where oxidative stress plays a key role. In addition, bile acids may also act as regulatory molecules involved in different cell signaling pathways in colon cells. On the other hand, there is increasing evidence that the continuous exposure to certain hydrophobic bile acids, due to a fat-rich diet or pathological conditions, may induce oxidative DNA damage that, in turn, may lead to colorectal carcinogenesis as a consequence of the appearance of cell populations resistant to bile acid-induced apoptosis. Finally, some bile acids, such as UDCA, or low concentrations of hydrophobic bile acids, can protect colon cells against apoptosis induced by high concentrations of cytotoxic bile acids, suggesting a dual behavior of these agents as pro-death or pro-survival molecules.
Authors:
Juan I Barrasa; Nieves Olmo; M Antonia Lizarbe; Javier Turnay
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Publication Detail:
Type:  JOURNAL ARTICLE     Date:  2012-12-26
Journal Detail:
Title:  Toxicology in vitro : an international journal published in association with BIBRA     Volume:  -     ISSN:  1879-3177     ISO Abbreviation:  Toxicol In Vitro     Publication Date:  2012 Dec 
Date Detail:
Created Date:  2012-12-31     Completed Date:  -     Revised Date:  -    
Medline Journal Info:
Nlm Unique ID:  8712158     Medline TA:  Toxicol In Vitro     Country:  -    
Other Details:
Languages:  ENG     Pagination:  -     Citation Subset:  -    
Copyright Information:
Copyright © 2012. Published by Elsevier Ltd.
Affiliation:
Department of Biochemistry and Molecular Biology I, Faculty of Chemistry, Complutense University, 28040-Madrid, Spain.
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