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Betulinic acid protects against cerebral ischemia-reperfusion injury in mice by reducing oxidative and nitrosative stress.
MedLine Citation:
PMID:  21292018     Owner:  NLM     Status:  Publisher    
Abstract/OtherAbstract:
Increased production of reactive oxygen and nitrogen species following cerebral ischemia-reperfusion is a major cause for neuronal injury. In hypercholesterolemic apolipoprotein E knockout (ApoE-KO) mice, 2 h of middle cerebral artery (MCA) occlusion followed by 22 h of reperfusion led to an enhanced expression of NADPH oxidase subunits (NOX2, NOX4 and p22phox) and isoforms of nitric oxide synthase (neuronal nNOS and inducible iNOS) in the ischemic hemisphere compared with the non-ischemic contralateral hemisphere. This was associated with elevated levels of 3-nitrotyrosine, an indicator of peroxynitrite-mediated oxidative protein modification. Pre-treatment with betulinic acid (50 mg/kg/day for 7 days via gavage) prior MCA occlusion prevented the ischemia reperfusion-induced upregulation of NOX2, nNOS and iNOS. In parallel, betulinic acid reduced the levels of 3-nitrotyrosine. In addition, treatment with betulinic acid enhanced the expression of endothelial eNOS in the non-ischemic hemispheres. Finally, betulinic acid reduced infarct volume and ameliorated the neurological deficit in this mouse stroke model. In conclusion, betulinic acid protects against cerebral ischemia-reperfusion injury in mice. This is likely to result from a reduction of oxidative stress (by downregulation of NOX2) and nitrosative stress (by reduction of nNOS and iNOS), and an enhancement of blood flow (by upregulation of eNOS).
Authors:
Qing Lu; Ning Xia; Hui Xu; Lianjun Guo; Philip Wenzel; Andreas Daiber; Thomas Münzel; Ulrich Förstermann; Huige Li
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Publication Detail:
Type:  JOURNAL ARTICLE     Date:  2011-1-31
Journal Detail:
Title:  Nitric oxide : biology and chemistry / official journal of the Nitric Oxide Society     Volume:  -     ISSN:  1089-8611     ISO Abbreviation:  -     Publication Date:  2011 Jan 
Date Detail:
Created Date:  2011-2-4     Completed Date:  -     Revised Date:  -    
Medline Journal Info:
Nlm Unique ID:  9709307     Medline TA:  Nitric Oxide     Country:  -    
Other Details:
Languages:  ENG     Pagination:  -     Citation Subset:  -    
Copyright Information:
Copyright © 2011. Published by Elsevier Inc.
Affiliation:
Department of Pharmacology, Johannes Gutenberg University, Mainz, Germany; Department of Pharmacology, Tongji Medical College, Huazhong University of Science and Technology, Wuhan, China.
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